sail-world.com
 
 
News Home Cruising Photo Gallery Video Gallery

 

Sail-World.com : Zhik Moth Worlds – Moth Rigid Wing: the hot news from Sail-World.com

Zhik Moth Worlds – Moth Rigid Wing: the hot news from Sail-World.com

'Charlie McKee tries the solid wing - Zhik Moth Australian Championships 2011'    Sail-World.com /AUS ©    Click Here to view large photo

Moth Worlds 2011.

The sailing world has been abuzz since it was discovered that 2009 World Champion Bora Gulari (USA) was going to arrive at Lake Macquarie, Australia with a solid wing sail on his Mach 2.

The now measured sail has been designed and built by Canadian C- Class wing builders Object 2 Skiff Works.

But Bora is not going to use the rigid wing sail.

However prior to the Australian titles, dual Olympic medallist, America’s Cup tactician and Moth sailor, 48 year old US sailor Charlie McKee began sailing his Mach 2 with the rigid wing.

In the six race Australian titles, McKee sailed with the rigid wing placing 42nd in the 102 boat fleet.

Not a promising start you think? But Charlie is over the moon and on the eve of the Worlds. In this Sail-World.com exclusive we discovered why.


‘Over my sailing career I have had a predisposition to this sort of thing, the high performance sailing, and honestly I throw all of the skiffs or moths or cats it is all that same high speed high angle different sort of constraints on tactics and things, into this basket.

‘18 footers, 49ers, moths, I do the extremes. While I have done six years of intense analysis of the tactical match racing on the big boats in the cup, my natural predisposition is tactics on high speed small sailing craft. This has been pretty cool for me.


‘Bora Gulari and George Peet worked with the designers and builders (of the rigid wing) Object 2 Skiff Works led by Ron Caldwell. They helped build it and sailed it and just ran out of time to figure it out and get to the point where they could race and feel like they would have a chance to win with it.

'Bora is a contender to win the Worlds and I don't put nearly that amount of time into the Moths.

'I sail the Moths for fun and to keep my hand in the aspect of this sport that I really love. I just thought it is such a cool thing and such a positive thing that it is good for everyone and it is good for the class that the wing gets sailed.

‘Bora and George ran out of time to use it and feel like they could be competitive to win the Worlds and I guess I am just a good enough sailor that they entrusted me to sail it and they felt I would be someone who could help figure it out technically.

‘I am not a threat to anyone in the top ten. We are all going to know a lot more by the end of the regatta than previously.

‘I do this for fun, I sail Moths for fun. It's a credit to all the people who have designed and built it and made it work, that someone like me can come in and can get on and say 'right I have five days to learn to use a wing on this platform that is obviously very difficult to sai'.' Moths are extremely finicky beasts.

Charlie McKee in action with the Moth solid wing - Zhik Moth Worlds 2011- Lake Macquarie Australia -  Sail-World.com -AUS?nid=78900 ©   Click Here to view large photo

‘I am just incredibly happy and excited to be doing this and be part of it. I have learned so much about the whole thing. I ran into Rohan Veal, (the foiling pioneer, the 2005 Moth World champion) earlier in the week and we were talking about the early days, when they were just trying to get moths up on foils.

‘We know this rigid wing can’t win at this very early stage of its development; we are on this incredibly steep part of the learning curve where you just know there is so much left to do but there is also so much potential.

‘Every day that I come in from sailing with the rigid wing, I know I am so much better than when I went out.

‘You go out and you think about it and you come in and think 'I am going to try this tomorrow' and it´s invigorating to have the intellectual exercise trying to figure out how it works on this platform.

‘There are some things about Moths that make them quite different from other boats. One of the main things is heeling to windward rather than the leeward.

‘That in itself, makes a lot of subtle differences in techniques and trimming and probably angles of attack and twists and all those sorts of things. Then you are trying to do this on an incredibly small, unstable platform.

‘It has just been great, I am like a kid in a candy store.

‘I've heard my Luna Rossa teammate James Spithill is coming up to watch the Moth Worlds. We have done a lot of sailing together and he is someone who, when there is a new aspect of the game, takes it on and throws himself into it. That type of attitude is inspirational to me and that is what I have tried to do with this wing. I knew that it was too late and I said from the very beginning there is no way that the first time out that a wing is going to go win the world championships but it is the future of the sport. It is the direction that it's going.

‘What a great the opportunity for me to learn and be a part of the development and get re-energised about the cool parts of sailing. I feel very fortunate.

‘There are three wings here (Lake Macquarie). There's the prototype that was built and two more that were built in an extremely compressed timeframe.

‘The developers built wing two and three just in time to put them into the container and send down to Australia. What should have been an 18 month project was a six week project. From my outside perspective I felt ' no way.'

‘The fact that they have come so far and that the thing works is amazing. It would be one thing if you were putting it on some two dimensional platform where you bolt the sail on, put the shrouds on and go but you are trying to integrate it with this foiling moth that has all these other things going on. It is amazing that it works so early on in its development.

Solid Wing - Zhik Moth Worlds 2011- Lake Macquarie Australia -  Sail-World.com -AUS?nid=78900 ©   Click Here to view large photo

‘The Moth has always been at the forefront of development and I felt it was a really good thing for the class to have the rigid wing out there and racing. I didn't want to be in a position where I said 'I will use it if it is faster but switch back to my soft sail if it is light wind or if I can´t get foiling'. I just said 'if I am going to do this, I am just going to go for it and do it'.

‘I am measuring in the other two wings. I am going to race with the wing and whether I get 30th or 80th I am just going to keep persisting and keep going for it.

‘So far I’ve mostly been in the middle of the 100+ fleet, but I’ve had a few flashes.

‘I did round one weather mark about tenth, I had a good beat.

‘The marginal foiling is very difficult at this stage. It is very hard for me as I haven't yet figured out how to get up on the foils as quickly, in the marginal stuff.

‘That makes it very tough on the starting line and very tough when the wind is unstable, when you tack and you might not have enough wind to get back up on the foils.

‘My big weakness is on starting; downwind we don´t have it figured out yet so it's not as fast, so I usually lose about five boats each downwind if I am sailing reasonably well.

‘That is something, that in the long run, is clearly solvable but we just ran out of time on that aspect.

‘When the breeze is up and I am doing things right and I get it dialled in, it feels great.

‘In the lead up to the regatta I had times where upwind I was right on the pace with people who sail Moths a hundred days a year, and I sail twenty.

‘I know that they are on the right track with the wing and there are aspects of it that are pretty cool. It balances really nicely the main sheet load ... it works.

‘My goal is to make the it into the gold fleet somehow, keep up on the foils, and if the normal Lake Macquarie sea breeze comes in I am hoping to show some flashes of brilliance and show what the wing can do.

‘So far the most we've have had the wing out in is about 18 knots.

‘It was very pleasant to sail in that breeze and the wing functioned really nicely and was a joy. I was a little worried coming this late into the project, that I was going to be able to figure out how to control the wing.

‘The work that has gone before by Bora and George; we have a pretty good open spirit in the Moths class and they have all been helping me out knowing that this it's ridiculously late to be having a new test pilot come in.

‘People have been asking what the squeak is they hear when I sail by. It is just a very minor thing. The mast stump which has the stainless pin that comes out of the nylon bush just sits low enough so that it rides on the top of the nylon bushing, rather than sitting on the pin. One of the wings does make the squeak and the other one doesn't and we are changing it so it will be quieter.

‘How fragile is the wing?

'The skins are very light weight so if you went flying into the wing you would go through the skins. The skins are like ceran wrap. I have been through some big wipe-outs with the wing and it has not been a problem at all and I know the other guys have been through some big crashes too.

‘I broke one of them today out sailing (the day before the Worlds)... one of the three. In 16 knots of breeze I stacked it in a jibe and was probably going 23 or 24 knots and went from 24 to zero in a hurry and it cracked the carbon on the front element, it crumpled.

‘It was the one that had been suspect and had broken before and been repaired. We knew that that was the questionable one but we wanted to give it one more run knowing full well that we were taking our chances.

‘We thought we would do it before the regatta and see because it had actually felt quite nice. I had sailed it once before and George had sailed it and it was responding well and it felt good but we knew it was questionable structurally because of the previous problem. And sure enough that proved to be the case.

‘The other day in the bay I hit 27 knots just fooling around and that´s the cool part.

‘The thing about sailing is that it is so complex and there are so many different aspects of it. There is so much to learn and there is cross pollination, I have tried very hard to keep doing difference aspects of the sport and challenging myself.

‘This opportunity came along to be a part of the wing development. My ego is not wrapped up in this project and I knew well I was signing up for something that was a little bit crazy.

‘No question that it was going to harm my results. But it is going to push the wing forward and hopefully it will help push the sport and the class forward too and certainly in my personal sailing having a challenge like this, well I am just really happy right now.

‘The skinny is that there has been a lot going around about the wing, the mast, everything. The bottom line really is that is just takes a longer timeframe than we've had to develop something such as this properly.

'It is going to get attention and the class is going to see what the wings are all about and the rest of the world is going to see what positives come from a development class like the Moths.

‘The expectations for how I am actually going to do results wise in the Worlds? I will tell you bluntly that I am not going to go finish in the top 20.

‘We are going to rip around the track and I can sheet in and go fifteen and a half knots upwind like Nathan and Bora and Tom Slingsby and those guys do sometimes.

‘For Bora and George just building something for the first time and putting it in a box and putting it up here and ripping it around, is quite an accomplishment.

‘My background in small boat sailing is mostly on the one designs but we all very much respect the traditions of the classes such as the Moth class, where so much innovation comes from.

'The wing is just becoming mainstream and the world is just waking up to this high performance sailing aspect, so for the Moth class once again to be at the forefront of it all, is just a great thing.

‘From my perspective if it is marginal foiling conditions here (lake Macquarie) then I am going to struggle to make it into the gold fleet the first time out with the wing and with only a few days sailing it.

‘If the breeze comes up then I hope people will see it and say, 'wow this thing has real potential and they have got it locked in upwind and that is pretty cool.'

‘Most of the Mothies think it is pretty darn cool already!'

Charlie McKee (USA) won Moth gold in 2008 at Sail Sydney - www harvpix com -  Harvipix?nid=78900



(Note - we are happy if other Sailing online media publish extracts from this long and exclusive article of up to 500 words- as long as the source is acknowledged as Sail-World.com and there is a live hyperlink back to the original article.)




by Rob Kothe and the Sail-World Team

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.sail-world.com/index.cfm?nid=78900

5:25 PM Fri 7 Jan 2011 GMT






Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.

Click for further information on
2011 Moth Worlds

Related News Stories:

21 Dec 2013  Rolex Sydney Hobart - Another hurdle for McConaghy Ker 46 Patrice
17 Dec 2013  McConaghy Boats dominate CYCA trophy series
10 Dec 2013  Port Hacking - Bird Island Race a great success for McConaghy Boats
15 Jul 2013  MC38 Harbour Regatta - Emerging from the mist
01 Feb 2013  McConaghy MC²60 to launch next month in Hong Kong
16 May 2012  Ensign Ship Brokers named as ambassador for McConaghy Boats
18 Apr 2012  Catamaran MC²60 assembly underway at McConaghy
03 Apr 2012  Ker 40 takes home the trifecta
27 Mar 2012  McConaghy boats - The fastest and now the deepest
06 Mar 2012  Inaugural MC 38 One Design Australian Championship announced
MORE STORIES ...

News - USA and the World

Volvo Ocean Race: Big gains for two boats in Doldrums *Feature by Richard Gladwell/Sail-World.com/nz
Two boats have made big gains in the Doldrums, with the western-most competitors apparently not stopping and sailing though the convergence zone between northern and southern hemispheres, without dropping below 8kts. Team Brunel and Abh Dhabi Ocean Racing have both made big gains on the rest of the fleet - and the two easternmost boats - Team Vestas Wind and Mapfre, in particular. ... [more]  

Groupe Beneteau today announced its sponsorship of the US Sailing Team Sperry Top-Sider and ISAF Sailing World Cup Miami. Groupe Beneteau is the world's leading yacht builder, and will now become a significant presence in high-performance sailing with its support of both the US national sailing team and North America's premier Olympic and Paralympic classes regatta. ... [more]  

The 2014 RS:X Youth Worlds kicked off on October 20th in Clearwater, USA, and it was hard work from the start: in 5-6 kt of breeze, offshore to start the day and side-on to close it, pumping was in order for the 54 boys and 28 girls gathered here for the 2014 RS:X Youth World Windsurfing Championships. ... [more]  

In spite of Hurricane Gonzalo's thrashing of the Onion Patch last week, the Royal Bermuda Yacht Club and the people of Bermuda are ready to host the 2014 Argo Group Gold Cup, Stage 6 of the Alpari World Match Racing Tour (AWMRT). All 20 teams have arrived safely from their corners of the world and will practice for a day and race on Wednesday. ... [more]  

While the Renaissance Re Junior Gold Cup always offers opportunities for young people to have new experiences, coping with Hurricane Gonzalo offered the 14 competitors traveling from overseas to Bermuda a hurdle that strengthened their respect for this island nation. Many of the 14 competitors spent layover time in either hotels or airports and some are now guests in homes without electricity. ... [more]  

Dynamic Stability Systems welcomes last week’s decision by IMOCA to place no further restrictions on its class rule. This permits both the six new IMOCA 60s currently under construction, as well as the existing fleet, to be fitted with the lateral lifting foils which DSS has spent the last decade pioneering. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15. It’s the place where the northern and southern winds meet, where a sailing race can be won or lost in an instant. And with its complex and confusing conditions, lack of breeze, and stifling heat – it’s also a place that most sailors can’t wait to see the back of. But there is one good thing about the Doldrums. ... [more]  

The Atlantic has proved to be a test for the VO65s in the Volvo Ocean Race and their teams as a battle of gybing down the west coast of Africa broke out, keeping all boats in a relatively tight-knit pack for much longer than expected. Having passed Morocco and the Canaries, we were drawn to the tricky-to-handle magnet of Cape Verde. ... [more]  

It’s the dawn of a complicated day in the Volvo Ocean Race. Let’s face it: we’re not having a very good time on Dongfeng. We lost distance last night, and our leading position. The day got dull afterwards. Sailing straight ahead, with the spinnaker up, in light winds. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Day 10 onboard Team SCA. Two days, eight hours, thirty-four minutes, and ten seconds, nine seconds, eight, seven, six, five… over the last few days the clock has gotten louder and louder as it counts down to October 23rd at noon—the time when we cross the equator and the time when myself and six other sailors join the rest of our crew in King Neptune’s court. ... [more]  

For Pablo Arrarte Elorza, the Volvo Ocean Race is a tough challenge. Not as far as physical effort is concerned because this likeable Spaniard is a very strong guy. For Pablo, the race is mostly a culinary war of attrition because the food that the team has bought with it on the race does little to please his gourmet palate. ... [more]  

The team at The St. Maarten Heineken Regatta are very happy to announce that entries are now open for the 2015 Regatta, taking place March 5 - 8. The team hopes to see lots of return entries as well as new ones this year, all coming to celebrate the event's 35th year. In order to celebrate this milestone year, there will be some new features this coming season. ... [more]  

After three complete days at sea only three boats competing in the 2014 Rolex Middle Sea Race have passed the northwest tip of Sicily, roughly the halfway point of the race. The prevailing wind remains weak, but is expected to strengthen this afternoon coinciding with the arrival of bulk of the fleet t the Egadi Islands. ... [more]  

Last week the Volvo Ocean Race was all about VMG downwind sailing, with Dongfeng being the star performer. After DFRT took the lead, they shortly lost it again 36 hours later after hitting something in the water and losing their rudder. Two hours later they were up and running again with the spare in. Impressive stuff. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race: Blogs from the Boats - Leg 1, Day 9 plus Videos *Feature by Richard Gladwell/Sail-World.nz/com
Several of the On Board Reporters aboard, provide their unique views of Leg 1, Day 9 of the Volvo Ocean Race - in text, images and video. ... [more]  

Rolex Middle Sea Race 2014 - Fight to the finish by Media Royal Malta Yacht Club
Igor Simicic's maxi, Esimit Europa 2 is expected to finish the Rolex Middle Sea Race in the early hours of tomorrow morning. However the 100ft carbon fibre canting keel Maxi is under serious pressure to secure their fourth Line Honours victory in the race. ... [more]  

Italy won two races (windward-leeward race (ninth race) and coastal race (11th race), Switzerland won the second race of the day (10th race) and Ireland the last one (12th race). A lot of tactics was required to make best use of the little wind. The first race (windward-leeward race, 0,8nm) started at four knots. A second start under black flag happened. ... [more]  

PredictWind have made significant improvements to the swell forecasting models and added new locations. Integrating the new 50km global wind forecast with ocean current data has created the most advanced swell modelling available online. By combining PredictWind forecast data with ocean current data, the effect of the wind on swells can be accounted for ... [more]  

The battle continues for the lead in the Volvo Ocean Race, with the front running being taken up by different competitors on a regular basis. With the first boats about to enter the Doldrums, anything can happen - with the outcome being decided by navigational skill and experience, rather than being resolved on a computer. ... [more]  

The Renaissance Re Junior Gold Cup, now in its 12th year, is known around the world as an international championship of junior champions. It runs parallel to the penultimate event on the World Match Racing Tour, the Argo Group Gold Cup. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race: Fleet charges the door of the Doldrums Casino *Feature by Richard Gladwell/Sail-World.com/nz
The Volvo Ocean Race has lifted intensity again on Day 9 with the fleet spread across 100nm of ocean and charging in a line for the turning point of Fernando de Noronha, 220nm off the Brazilian coast. ... [more]  

As expected the third day of the 2014 La Torche PWA Grand Slam proved to be a quiet affair with very light winds throughout the day. After a chilly and overcast start, the sun eventually broke through to produce another beautiful afternoon in La Torche. ... [more]  

The first eight days of the 2014-15 Volvo Ocean Race have been filled with more excitement and tighter racing than anyone could have anticipated. Up until Saturday morning, Leg One has left the fleet with few tactical options and therefore has kept everyone tightly packed as one unit of seven boats. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15. The sun’s out. It’s warm – not too hot, but warm enough for just a tee shirt. Ian Walker is stood at the helm of his Emirati boat, generous Atlantic trade winds whistling past his ears. 'We’re going straight through,' he claims, confidently. 'What Doldrums? - they’re going to say. Azzam isn’t even going to slow down.' ... [more]  

At 1700 CET in the Rolex Middle Sea Race, 113 yachts had rounded Stromboli, the active volcano that marks the most northerly point of the course. Race leader on the water, Esimit Europa 2, was less than 20 miles from Favignana and preparing to turn south with 289 miles to go and is expected to finish the race in the early hours of Wednesday 22 October, which would be well outside the course record ... [more]  

It is with great pleasure that the Star Sailors League announces that two more top Brazilian sailors will be joining the fleet of 20 super-champions taking part in the Star Sailors League Finals 2014 being held for the second consecutive year at Nassau Yacht Club in the Bahamas between December 1st and 7th. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Day Nine onboard Team Alvimedica. It’s hard to explain the complexity of the weather in this part of the world. No computer model or forecaster can accurately predict the winds because the air here is dry and warm, 23c now, and the typical barometric pressure gradients that generate them become very weak. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Day Nine onboard Team SCA. We’re a boat on a mission: catch the fleet. And they’re getting closer by the mile. The first time I sailed past Cape Verde islands was in 2010 when I was helping deliver a catamaran from Gibraltar to Antigua, W.I. ... [more]  

Thailand bids for 2016 IODA ‘Optimist’ World Championships by Jordan Rumsby, Royal Varuna Yacht Club
Pattaya's Royal Varuna Yacht Club has submitted a bid to host the 2016 International Optimist Dinghy Association World Championships, offering the world's most talented junior sailing teams a chance to experience the steady wind, sunshine, smiles, great food, and family-friendly attractions of Thailand's top dinghy sailing destination ... [more]  

Photographer Ellen Hoke was on the water at the Farr 40 Worlds sailed from the St Francis Yacht Club, San Francisco, and provided this second gallery of images from the Final Day - Day 4 Prizegiving ... [more]  

Bill Green - builder and sailor passes on by Malcolm McKeag, Scuttlebutt Europe, Lymington, England:
Bill Green, San Francisco-born sailor, Navy jet jockey (not a lot of people know that); US Coastguard; shrimp-boat hand (not a lot of people know that either); One Ton Cup winner and most latterly proprietor of Green Marine slipped quietly away from this life ... [more]  

Tom Burton (AUS) retained World #1 in the Laser after a tremendous fight back at ISAF Sailing World Cup Qingdao where he picked up bronze. The Australia had a tough opening day, finishing down the pack in both races but as the week progressed he worked his way up and sealed bronze on the final day to keep hold of World #1. ... [more]  

Photographer Ellen Hoke was on the water at the Farr 40 Worlds sailed from the St Francis Yacht Club, San Francisco, and provided this gallery of images from the Final Day - Day 4 ... [more]  

Farr 40 Worlds: Images from Day 2 in San Francisco *Feature
Rolex Middle Sea Race 2014 - A hard day's night
34th Student Yachting World Cup 2014 - Second race day
Volvo Ocean Race: Dongfeng loses lead, anyone's race ahead of Doldrums *Feature
Flying Dreams 'An Ocean Story': The Movie
New super maxis gear up for Rolex Sydney Hobart
Volvo Ocean Race: Blogs from the Boats - Leg 1, Day 8 plus Videos *Feature
Linda Elias Memorial Women’s One Design Challenge - Youngerman wins
2014 Off Valparaíso Race - Santander team victorious
La Torche PWA Grand Slam - Waves continue to pound on day 2
Volvo Ocean Race: Dongfeng consolidates lead on Day 8 *Feature
RS:X Youth World Championships - All set for Clearwater action
Rolex Middle Sea Race 2014 - Slow road north
Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15 – Dongfeng Race Team - A risky call
Rolex Middle Sea Race 2014 - Escaping the shroud of Mount Etna
Farr 40 Worlds: Day 4 Image and Video gallery *Feature
Australian 18 Footers League’s Major A. Frizelle Trophy
Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15 - Leader gambles on Island windshadow
2014 Sailing World Cup Qingdao - Final day video highlights
2014 Rolex Farr 40 World Championship - Plenty of time
Coast Guard rescues two near Wachapreague   
2014 Off Valparaíso Race - Day 2   
La Torche PWA Grand Slam - Massive swell on day 1   
Volvo Ocean Race: Welcome to Al's Ocean Cafe   
Argo Group Gold Cup survives Hurricane Gonzalo   
Volvo Ocean Race: Dongfeng regains lead after incident packed Day 7 *Feature   
Volvo Ocean Race: Dramatic video of Dongfeng rudder replacement   
Volvo Ocean Race - Team Alvimedica bounces back   
Volvo Ocean Race - Team SCA expecting the expected + Video   
Rolex Middle Sea Race - New record for Mediterranean classic   
ISAF Sailing World Cup Qingdao - Medallists decided across six fleets   
Volvo Ocean Race - Impressive turnaround for Dongfeng Race Team +Video   
Volvo Ocean Race: Race closer than leaderboard suggests - Leg 1, Day 6   
Volvo Ocean Race: Dongfeng Race Team break rudder after collision   
2014 Rolex Farr 40 World Championship - Famous breeze frustrates   
2014 Off Valparaíso Race - Day 1   
Sunfish World Championship - Victory for Argentina's Francisco Renna   
Volvo Ocean Race - Feeling the pressure six days in   
Volvo Ocean Race - Alvimedica cautiously cruising down coast of Africa   
Volvo Ocean Race - Team Brunel still within striking distance   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/FaceBook-icon.png  http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW US
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT