sail-world.com
 
 
News Home Cruising Photo Gallery Video Gallery

 

Sail-World.com : Silly Season in the America's Cup - Keels 'n Barge

Silly Season in the America's Cup - Keels 'n Barge

'Graham Dalton’s multi-foiled canting keel Open 50 demonstrates why rulemakers talk of appendages rather than keels and rudders. The canting keel strut contributes little if any real righting moment - which comes from the bulb (another defined term in the ISAF Equipment Rules).'    © Richard Gladwell

After Christmas, the silly season seemed to strike the America’s Cup.

Some would say that the Cup has been in an incoherent state for quite some time. Maybe that goes with the territory.

The antics started soon after Justice Herman Cahn’s decision on 27 November, which declared that Club Nautico Espanol de Vela (CNEV) was not a legitimate challenger on a couple of grounds – both of which involved the interpretation of a couple of simple words.

“Having” meant something that had happened in the past – not some expression of future intent. So the phrase “having for its annual regatta on ocean water course…” meant that CNEV should have already sailed a regatta before lodging its Challenge with Societe Nautique de Geneve. Clearly it had not, and on this count alone the Spanish “legal adjustment” was out of the game, according to Justice Cahn.

Clearly encouraged by the fact that the case could swing on a word or two, Alinghi’s new legal team trawled through the documents submitted by the second challenger, Golden Gate Yacht Club. The new legal-eagles and found that that in their Notice of Challenge GGYC had stated in their preamble that the were going to sail a “keel yacht” and later in the Notice of Challenge gave the dimensions of their Challenger, as required by the Deed of Gift.

The Deed of Gift does not require the Challenger to give a written description of their boat, save for stating the basic dimensions specified in the Deed of Gift. The argument advanced by Alinghi is based around information that is not required.

The reason why the information is not required is fairly self-evident. Imagine if when entering your yacht in a race you had to describe it accurately in words, and that if this description was proved to be inaccurate in a protest hearing, or capable of being interpreted so as to be misleading, then you would be disqualified from the race? The protests would be endless, and for this reason it is required on entering a yacht race, the yacht is described as being of a certain class (and therefore in compliance with the restriction and measurements of that class). Or, the owner will supply required dimensions, which must be accurate ie it would be protestable and if inaccurate a penalty would be prescribed.

This approach is consistent with the case of Thistle in the 1887 America's Cup, which turned up with a waterline length 18' longer than specified on her Notice of Challenge.

Most sailors would have taken a nanosecond or two, to work out that a yacht with a 90ft waterline beam and 90ft waterline length would have been some sort of multihull – the only issue being whether it had two or three hulls.

However the words “keel yacht”, used the Notice of Challenge clearly confused some in the Alinghi camp.

Their legal department swung into action and produced various affidavits and other papers, one of which was written by Fred Meyer, Vice Commodore of SNG.

In paragraph 10 the Vice Commodore comments:

“10. This distinction between “keel yacht” and “multi-hull” is confirmed by the International Sailing Federation (ISAF”) rules, which clearly distinguishes among the following class designs: (i) Keelboat, (ii) Multi-hull, (iii) Centreboard, and (iv) Windsurfing.

“In addition, on the website www.isaf.org, the ISAF distinguishes the following boat classes: (i) Centreboard, (ii) Keelboat, (iii) Multihull. and (iv) Windsurfing.

(Three references are quoted, relating to ISAF Regulations. The first reference being the composition of the Class Rules Subcommittee, and the second relates to the minimum participation required to retain the right to stage a world championship. The third would appear to be incorrect ISAF Regulation 16.1.6 which is claimed to specify differing equipment required on board based on the class of boat – when the regulation in fact just lists the international classes to be used in the Olympic and Asian Games).

The obvious point in the above extract is the way in which the paragraph begins with the use of the term “keel yacht” and finishes talking about the term “keelboat” - which is much safer ground from which to work their argument, which is tenuous at best.

Unfortunately for Alinghi, Golden Gate YC used the words “keel yacht” not keelboat, and the terms mean quite different things.

The word “keel” in “keel yacht” is an adjective describing the noun “yacht”.

“Keelboat”is a noun, free of adjective, and is primarily a technical term coined by ISAF for Olympic Event classification and International Class administration purposes. ISAF previously had a Keelboat Committee, as it had a Centreboard Committee along with about 30 other committees and sub-committees. Followers of the governing body of the sport will be aware that it is concerned with the International Keelboat classes (almost all of which are one-designs), and who meet the ISAF criteria for International or Recognised class status.

While the keelboat side of the sport is large in terms of worldwide participation, however most of the work has been done by organisations like the ORC and offshore and ocean racing clubs independently of the ISAF.

Further the America's Cup class, while initially called the International America's Cup Class soon dropped the word 'Intrenational' as this implied some form of connection or administration by ISAF, which was not the case, and the rules have since been known and the America's Cup Class rules (ACC). It is ironic that when an authoritative interpretation is required that SNG reverts to ISAF, yet will not use that body to run the event in the way that it does for all World Championships and the Olympic Games.

Many believe that SNG is using ISAF as a flag of convenience in this matter.

Maximus keel strut, centrecase and bulb - do these fit the ISAF definitions? Or aren’t the definitions relevant? Which part is the keel in terms of the ISAF ERS? -  © Richard Gladwell?nid=41319   Click Here to view large photo


The word keel has two meanings.

Its traditional meaning is that it is the centre spine of a boat from which all frames are attached. In sailing ships the keel was also the lowest point of the yacht.

In this meaning, all yachts have keels, as in “keel yacht”.

In modern yachts, “keel” also has a looser meaning when referring to an appendage, that pokes out of the bottom of yacht – be it multihull, monohull or whatever.

Yachting rulemakers have long recognised the fallacy of talking about the ambiguous term “keel” to refer to this fin/strut/centreboard and use the term “appendage” to describe the various items which poke out of the bottoms of racing yachts.

This is the case in various America’s Cup class rules, and International Sailing Federation’s own Equipment Rules of Sailing in Section E defines no less than 11 terms of various items which can be appendages, of which “keel” is one.

If a designer were genuinely perplexed as to the meaning of a “keel yacht” then one would have thought a couple of minutes spent reading the ISAF Equipment Rules of Sailing would have been more relevant than the Oxford dictionary.

If you are a lawyer wishing to make a legal point, then the Oxford Dictionary is the place from which to launch your case. However Fred Meyer describes himself as being the Vice Commodore of SNG and Secretary of the International 8m JI Class Association, - a sailor not a lawyer.

For the record a “keel” according to ISAF is “A fixed hull appendage, attached approximately on the hull centreplane, primarily used to affect stability and leeway.”

However we digress.

Would Gunboat Rangiri, a former World Half Ton champion have come under the jurisdiction of then IYRU’s Keelboat or Centreboard Committee? -  Event Media   Click Here to view large photo


The point with the term “keel yacht” is that it is so vague as to be meaningless (which was probably GGYC’s intention). Anything with sails that floats and moves forwards, can be called a yacht, and plenty of pleasurecraft without sails are also called yachts. All boats have keels (as in a backbone structural member) and all have appendages to prevent leeway and provide steerage.

A “keelboat” is quite a different beast and stems, as from ISAF’s need to broadly categorise boats under its jurisdiction, and for the cat




by Richard Gladwell

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.sail-world.com/index.cfm?nid=41319

12:33 PM Mon 28 Jan 2008 GMT






Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.

Click for further information on
2013 America's Cup

Related News Stories:

09 Aug 2014  America's Cup: Former Artemis crew member says danger is being ignored
27 May 2014  America's Cup: Oracle Team USA under stress
23 May 2014  America's Cup: Oracle and Team NZ designers reveal AC72 secrets
22 May 2014  America's Cup: Artemis death verdict 'result of an human act'
10 May 2014  A year after the Artemis incident, the sailors tell of the pain
01 May 2014  America's Cup: Oracle and Team NZ tech insights - Free lecture tonight
16 Apr 2014  America's Cup: Expected de Ridder penalty should be reduced
14 Apr 2014  America's Cup: Dean Barker's Blog - A sail with the Duke and Duchess
12 Apr 2014  America's Cup: Coutts claims ISAF Jury on a crusade, backs Kiwi report
10 Apr 2014  America's Cup: Two Kiwis escape hometown action in AC45 rules ruckus
MORE STORIES ...

News - USA and the World

Express 27 National Championship overall + Video by Erik Simonson, Pressure-Drop.US,




















America's Cup: Louis Vuitton Cup's Yves Carcelle dies at 66 *Feature by Richard Gladwell/Sail-World.com/nz,












Audi Melges 20 World Championship - ‘Samba Pa Ti’ crowned champion by International Audi Melges 20 Class Association,










Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Final race to decide champion by International Audi Melges 20 Class Association,










Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show - 13 things to See and do by Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show,




Volvo Ocean Race: Update from Team Vestas Wind in images by Richard Gladwell/Sail-World.com/nz,








Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Classic Garda conditions on day 2 by International Audi Melges 20 Class Association,


PWA Alacati World Cup - Intense competition on day 3
America's Cup: 'The Doc' appointed as Commercial Commissioner
Wake Park Triple Crown - Registration open for final stop
Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Day 2 images by Stefano Gattini
Volvo Ocean Race - Two more join Dongfeng Race Team
OHPRI Teen Summer Camps make a splash
East to West: A profile of Volvo Ocean Race crew Team Dongfeng
Extreme Sailing Series - First-ever Turkish team to race in Istanbul
Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Race 4 images by Max Ranchi
New Around Britain and Ireland Monohull 40ft and less world record
Detroit Cup - Fifth place finish a difficult result for Neptune Racing
Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Alessandro Rombelli's 'STIG' leads
Volvo Ocean Race: Call of Duty comes first for Team Alvimedica
Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Day 1 images by Stefano Gattini
Helping boaters understand weather basics
PWA Alacati World Cup - Exciting finish on day 2
Match 40s find the surface again + Video
Audi Melges 20 World Championship - Day 1 images by Max Ranchi
Clagett Regatta names first Executive Director
Transatlantic Race - Fleet expanded for 2015 edition
IFDS World Championship overall   
Anna Tunnicliffe: Alinghi finishes second - Extreme Sailing Series   
2014 18' Skiff International Regatta - Day 2   
2014 Audi Melges 20 World Championship - It's go time in Garda   
2nd Annual Keith Dinsmoor Regatta September 13-14   
Aldo Alessio Regatta - Three days of tight racing   
PWA Alacati World Cup - First blood to Van Der Steen and Offringa   
Oakcliff Sailing hosts the Nacra 17, 49er and 49erFX Nationals + Video   
International 18ft Skiff Regatta underway on San Francisco Bay   
Maxi Yacht Rolex Cup 2014 - Quality fleet for Maxi Classic   
Sailing Champions League - which is Europe's best sailing club?   
Weta fun at the Wine & Roses Regatta   
Extreme Sailing Series: The Wave, Muscat claims victory on Cardiff Bay   
International 14 World Championships 2015: Not just for boys   
Rio de Janeiro achieves 50% treatment of sewage outflow *Feature   
2014 AWT Quatro Desert Showdown - Event memorable videos   
2014 18' Skiff Int Regatta: Day 1 at San Francisco - Reversal on beach   
Emirates Team NZ: Last race boost cannot save team from table bottom   
PWA Alacati World Cup - Furious slalom is upon us   
J/111 World Championships - The Winner is Shmokin Joe!   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/FaceBook-icon.png  http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW US
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT