Please select your home edition
Edition
Naiad/Oracle Supplier

Missing link of how fishes triumphed over toxic oceans revealed

by ARC Centre of Excellence on 19 Jun 2013
How fish won the oxygen war Jodie Rummer
An international team of scientists have revealed a missing link in the story of how the fishes triumphed over toxic oceans and past climate changes.

The key to the evolutionary success of fish – and their possible survival in future – may lie with a molecule that they ultimately bequeathed to humans: hemoglobin, the precious carrier of oxygen into our brain, heart, muscles and other organs.

In a paper in the latest edition of the journal Science, Dr Jodie Rummer of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and colleagues from the University of British Columbia report a groundbreaking discovery about how fish manage to survive in hostile water conditions.

'Four hundred million years ago the oceans were not what they are today. They were low in oxygen, high in CO2 and acidic,' says Dr Rummer. 'Yet the fishes not only survived in these unpromising circumstances, they managed to thrive. Their secret weapon was a system for unloading huge amounts of oxygen from the hemoglobin in their blood, whenever the going got really tough.

'Hemoglobin in the blood takes up oxygen in the gills of fish and the lungs of humans. It then carries it round the body to the heart, muscles and organs until it encounters tissues that are highly active and producing a lot of CO2.' 'The acid is a signal to the hemoglobin to unload as much of its oxygen as possible into the tissues,' she explains.

'These early fish managed to develop a way to maximize the delivery of oxygen, even when the water they lived in was low in it. They had a phenomenal capacity for releasing oxygen just when needed: it was one of the big secrets of their evolutionary success, to the extent they now make up half the vertebrates on the planet.'

The fishes’ oxygen release system became even more efficient over the ensuing 150-270 million years, when it was necessary to deliver large amounts to organs such as the eye – which requires very large O2 loads to function well and avoid vision cell death – and which was essential to seeing clearly under water, to hunt or avoid predators.

The researchers made their discovery by deciphering the biochemistry of how rainbow trout manage to rapidly double oxygen release in certain tissues, when they swim in waters that cause them stress.

The fish system is many times more efficient than the one inherited by humans (as our amphibian ancestors branched away from higher fishes around 350-400my ago when the hemoglobin system was still in its early stages of development), but its discovery may lead to new ways of understanding and tackling conditions influenced by oxygen levels in the body.

'Also, we feel that if we can understand how fish coped with low-oxygen, high CO2, acidic waters in the past, it will give us some insight into how they might cope with man-made climate change which appears to be giving rise to such conditions again,' Dr Rummer says.
InSunSport - NZBakewell-White Yacht DesignWildwind 2016 660x82

Related Articles

Kids Polarised Sunglasses from Barz Optics
Barz Optics have developed a quality range of junior polarised sunglasses ideal for sailing and fishing. Barz Optics have developed a quality range of junior polarised sunglasses ideal for sailing and fishing. Each pair are supplied with a neoprene case and sunglass retainer.
Posted on 4 Aug
Rio official murdered ten months before the Olympics
Rio de Janeiro is a troubled city and a reeling Olympic host, but it will always have beautiful Guanabara Bay. Does an unsolved murder of an official in Rio in charge of cleaning up Guanabara Bay say a lot about the state of platy in the magical city? Priscilla Pereira was murdered 10 months ago and the thinking is that she was murdered in relation to her work
Posted on 31 Jul
WHO statement on Zika virus
The third meeting of the EC convened by the Director-General under IHR 2005 regarding microcephaly and Zika virus The third meeting of the Emergency Committee (EC) convened by the Director-General under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR 2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika virus was held by teleconference on 14 June 2016, from 13:00 to 17:15 Central European Time.
Posted on 16 Jun
Atlantic Cup 2016 - a race with an environmental commitment
The Atlantic Cup continues to further its mission for the 2016 race by examining the global economic impact of the ocean The Atlantic Cup continues to further its mission for the 2016 race by examining the global economic impact of the ocean and how an unhealthy ocean can affect the economy.
Posted on 7 Apr
Zika virus situation report
From 1 January 2007 to 16 March 2016, Zika virus transmission was documented in a total of 59 countries and territories. From 1 January 2007 to 16 March 2016, Zika virus transmission was documented in a total of 59 countries and territories. Cuba and Dominica are the latest to report autochthonous (local) transmission of Zika virus on 14 and 15 March, respectively. Five of these countries and territories reported a Zika virus outbreak that is now over.
Posted on 2 Apr
Have Norway scientists solved the Bermuda Triangle mystery?
The Bermuda Triangle has been said to have claimed numerous ships and aircraft over the years The Bermuda Triangle has been said to have claimed numerous ships and aircraft over the years, and everything from aliens to remnants from the lost island of Atlantis have been fingered as the culprits.
Posted on 15 Mar
Cyclone Winston Relief Fund – Help the people of Fiji
Sea Mercy is sending volunteer fleet of small and large vessels, loaded with shelter, food and medical supplies to Fiji. Sea Mercy is once again sending our volunteer fleet of small and large vessels, loaded with shelter, food, water and medical supplies and teams to Fiji.
Posted on 27 Feb
Flying Scot Atlantic Coast Champs - Hanson Medals awarded for rescues
US Sailing Safety at Sea Committee awarded the Arthur B. Hanson Rescue Medals to eight boats for their heroic efforts The US Sailing Safety at Sea Committee awarded the Arthur B. Hanson Rescue Medals to eight boats for their heroic efforts when a microburst storm hit the 2015 Flying Scot Atlantic Coast Championship, hosted by the Blackbeard Sailing Club, in New Bern, NC on September 12.
Posted on 2 Feb
Eco-warriors Sea-Bin crowd sharing critical stage with nine days to go
The automated marina cleaning SeaBin project has raised 86% of their target with 9 days left. The automated marina cleaning SeaBin project has raised $198,020 of $230,000.00 with nine days left on their Indiegogo crowdfunding platform, but they need more help now.
Posted on 29 Dec 2015
Eco-warriors Sea-Bin crowd sharing critical stage with nine days to go
The automated marina cleaning SeaBin project has raised 86% of their target with 9 days left. The automated marina cleaning SeaBin project has raised $198,020 of $230,000.00 with nine days left on their Indiegogo crowdfunding platform, but they need more help now.
Posted on 29 Dec 2015