sail-world.com
 
 
News Home Cruising Photo Gallery Video Gallery
Sail-World.com : America's Cup: War of Words erupts over changed Race Schedule
America's Cup: War of Words erupts over changed Race Schedule


'Onboard the AC72. Artemis Racing April 11th 2013, Alameda, USA'    Sander van der Borch / Artemis Racing ©    Click Here to view large photo

Artemis Racing's skipper Paul Cayard has hit back at Emirates Team NZ's MD Grant Dalton's comments made after the Teams Meeting in San Francisco, late last week:

Paul Cayard, CEO Artemis Racing -  Sander van der Borch_- Artemis Racing ©   Click Here to view large photo
In response to comments by Emirates Team New Zealand's Managing Director Grant Dalton in a June 8, 2013 article in the New Zealand Herald, we would like to set the record straight. Dalton's proposals to change the race (start direct elimination on July 19, rather than August 6, and alter the format to eliminate the semi-finals) would certainly not help Artemis Racing, as suggested, but make it even harder for us to compete. To shorten an already tight timeline is clearly not acceptable to us, as to any team in the same position. Dalton's proposals benefit no team but his own, and his public insults are out of line and unsportsmanlike.

Artemis Racing's May 9 accident set us back immensely - on a human level and a campaign level. As competitors, though, we may be down, but we are not out. Our passion for the America's Cup remains strong. We are committed again to competing. Anyone who knows our sailors knows that our team will not shy away from a tough challenge. We are doing our best to recover and our target is to be ready for racing in the Louis Vuitton Cup's semi-finals on August 6, if not earlier. In the meantime, the race schedule should remain unchanged and the derogatory analogies should be left on the dock.


The original Louis Vuitton Cup race schedule had the three teams sailing a Round Robin consisting of seven rounds (21 races) in total with the winner having the option to advance through to the Finals, or participating in the Semi-Finals, presumably with the third placed boat.

After the capsize and death of Artemis Racing crew man, Andrew Simpson (GBR), the recommendation was made to reduce the Round Robin phase of the Challenger Selection series to five rounds, or 15 races.

Grant Dalton, Emirates Team NZ Managing Director -  Richard Gladwell_©   Click Here to view large photo
Luna Rossa and Emirates Team NZ, in a concession to Artemis Racing's dilemma, offered to delay the start of the Round Robin Series to July 19. This was not acceptable to Artemis Racing, who would only agree to a full series (Round Robin and Semi-Final) being run, with one extra reserve day being added, bringing the series down to the agreed 15 races (five rounds).

Then Artemis Racing then announced that they would default most of the races in the Round Robin, and would instead seriously race only in the Semi-Finals phase of the CSS or Louis Vuitton Cup.

Soon after Artemis Racing issues their statement, Emirates Team New Zealand responded as follows:

The joint proposal put forth by Luna Rossa and Emirates Team New Zealand of starting the Louis Vuitton Cup later in July was done so in the hope of enhancing the event with a full muster of boats from the beginning, and therefore, placing more importance on the racing from the first race, something for which fans and sponsors are craving right now.

'The weighting of points (more points later in July) was also suggested, with the idea being to get racing underway but not determine the results too early in the racing.

Both these proposals were rejected by Artemis Racing, the Challenger of Record.

'Normally the challenger series of an America’s Cup is run on terms that meet the wishes of the majority of challengers,' Dalton said. 'This is not the case here with Artemis rejecting the proposal and wanting to continue running an event schedule in which, by under their own admission, they will not compete in in the early stages.

'Obviously it was assumed that 10 weeks after the Artemis tragedy, that having previously taken delivery of their second AC72 they would be ready to race. This is not the case.'


Authority for Schedule Changes unclear

After an examination by Sail-World, and questioning of America's Cup Rules experts, it does not appear that Artemis Racing, or their club, Royal Yacht Club of Sweden, have the ability to over-rule a majority decision of the Challengers as appears to have been done.

America’s Cup Regatta Director, Iain Murray -  Gilles Martin-Raget: AmericasCup©   Click Here to view large photo
To recap, the question of the revised racing schedule was discussed at various Team Meetings, late last week.

Given that the Review Committee convened by America's Cup Regatta Director, Iain Murray had recommended that the number of rounds in the Round Robin of the Louis Vuitton Cup, due to begin in the first week of July, be reduced from seven rounds to five (or a reduction from 21 races to 15, with an additional Reserve Day each week of racing).

This was done as a safety measure, following the fatal Artemis capsize on May 9th, and was agreed by all the teams.

The three Challengers then met (without the Defender Team USA). Luna Rossa (ITA), supported by Emirates Team NZ, proposed that the start of the Louis Vuitton Round Robin be delayed by two weeks until July 19, and that the event then be sailed as originally envisaged.

This would allow Artemis Racing time to get their second AC72 launched and tested and ready to race.

Artemis rejected this arrangement, saying in a later release, that they would not be ready and would in fact sit-out most of the Round Robin phase. That phase, with just three competitors, carried little real significance except to find the first Finalist to sail against the winner of the Semi-Finals, a best of seven series, starting in early August.

Artemis Racing's intention was clear, in that they had flagged away being the first finalist, but would have a serious crack at the Semi-Final and reaching the final and maybe beyond via that route. But more of the Rules implications of that announcement later.

Power of Veto?

After the Challengers' meeting broke up with a split vote, Emirates Team NZ claimed that Artemis Racing had used their position as Challenger of Record (effectively the first club to Challenge the Defender, Golden Gate Yacht Club, represented by Oracle Team USA), to impose a solution that the majority of teams did not want.

It is believed that Artemis Racing, as Challenger of Record, have the right of a veto as such, over changes to the racing format. (Protocol Article 14.1). Certainly that would be the case if the Regatta were a Deed of Gift Match (as was the 2010 America's Cup between the two 120ft giant multihulls of Alinghi and then Oracle Racing).

Once the Defender and Challenger sign a Protocol to facilitate a Multi-Challenger event to chose the Challenger for the America's Cup Match, then all teams are bound by the provisions of the Protocol.

At the heart of the Protocol for the 34th America's Cup is the concept of Neutral Management, set out in Clause 3 of the Protocol. This requires the various parties including the Challenger of Record (in its capacity as Challenger of Record) to 'act in the best interests of the Competitors collectively.... in organizing and managing the Event'. And 'shall not unreasonably favor the interests of any Competitor over another.'

(Under this Protocol, Artemis Racing, or rather their club KSSS, has two roles - that of a Competitor or team, and that of Challenger of Record.)

The point of Neutral Management is to eliminate any perception, or ability to indulge in self-dealing, which has been an historical criticism of the America's Cup since its inception.

If any of the parties covered by the Neutral Management clause believe that that one competitor has been favoured over another, then they have the right to take their complaint to the Jury, who may revise, and make a binding decision.

A majority decision binding?

Changes to the format of the America's Cup Challenger Series (Louis Vuitton Cup) are covered by Clause 25.3 which says 'The format of the ACCS agreed by the Challengers and the Regatta Director shall be revised by agreement of the majority of the Challengers and Regatta Director if the format of the Match is amended.'

It is clear from Clause 25.3 that if the format of the ACCS is to change, then the change is done on the basis of a majority decision, not unanimous decision, or unilaterally by the Challenger of Record, Regatta Director or any other Party to the Protocol

The sting in the tail of the clause, of course is 'if the format of the Match is amended'. Some may claim that because this was not being done in response to a change in the format of the America's Cup Match, then it was not applicable. But the intention of the clause is clearly that a change in the ACSS is done by the majority vote of the Challengers and not arbitrarily, by a Challenger of Record, Defender, Regatta Director or another party.

However first the Challenger of Record and Defender must agree that the Protocol can be amended. Artemis, as Challenger of Record, dug in their toes and refused, creating a stalemate, and claims from the other two teams that the Challenger of Record had been acting in its own team's interests, and not the best interests of all Competitors collectively as required under Article 3a(i) of the Protocol.

At the teams meeting it was felt that for any changes to be made to the Protocol in terms of the Regatta format, that a Protocol Change would be required. This required the consent of both the Defender and Challenger of Record, as discussed above. Under the doctrines of Neutral Management, in this case, KSSS, as Challenger of Record, must be careful that they do not 'unreasonably favor the interests of any Competitor over another'. Given that they knew Emirates Team NZ and Luna Rossa were in favour of change, and that the changes were being done as a result of the catastrophic tragedy and consequences, that beset their team, it is difficult to see how the Challenger of Record could justify using their veto at this juncture, which is what Sail-World believes happened.

It is hard to see how it could be claimed that exercising a Veto at this stage, and circumstances, was properly exercising the responsibilities of Challenger of Record, opening the gate on charges of self-dealing.

It would also seem that the other changes, have been/will be made to the Protocol without this 'door to change' in 25.3 of the Protocol being first opened.

Clearly there was agreement between two of the three Challengers as to the new ACCS format, to proposed to begin on July 19.

While Artemis Racing, may not have been able to make that date, that is their issue not that of the other Competitors.

Artemis Racing has one other issue to be addressed. That is their announcement that they were going to be a No-Show in any racing until late July, or the Semi-Finals in August.

That issue is covered under Protocol Clause 21, Requirement to Race. These contained fines for being a No-Show, and also set out wind limits which are now judged to be extreme and have been amended with the consent of all Competitors.

Clause 21.1 says 'Competitors are required to race in all regattas of the Event for which they are eligible.' And, then goes on to talk about wind limits and how they are measured.

The point being that Competitors are 'required to race'. While some would claim that if Artemis sailed just one race they were in compliance, legally that view may be an arguable interpretation, but it is a sailing nonsense.

The Clause 21.2 sets out the schedule of fines for not racing, since recommended to be removed by the Regatta Director.

But the point remains that Clause 21.1, as it stood before the Artemis incident, and now stands, requires the Competitors to race, not announce in advance, they would default a race or series.

The issue of the changes to the race schedule, as currently published, are the best achievable for Artemis Racing, short of deferring the regatta for 12 months. For a competitor with substantial sponsor obligations spread over the duration of the regatta, the changes to the race program are believed to be very significant, in terms of contractual and financial undertakings made.

The matter is expected to be referred to the International Jury for Mediation or a full Hearing, unless the parties can resolve their issues internally.

© This story is copyright to Richard Gladwell and Sail-World.com and may not be republished without permission


by Richard Gladwell

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.sail-world.com/index.cfm?nid=109638

10:31 PM Mon 10 Jun 2013GMT


Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.

Click for further information on
2013 America's Cup

Related News Stories:

10 Jun 2013  America's Cup: Swinging the wing - a crane's eye view - Video
10 Jun 2013  America's Cup: Emirates Team NZ - Pushing to develop
15 May 2013  America's Cup: Committee to report on AC72 safety measures
15 May 2013  America's Cup: Teams Press Conference live coverage here now!
14 May 2013  America's Cup: German team pulls out of Red Bull Youth series
14 May 2013  America´s Cup Artemis Crew in shock - newspaper quotes inaccurate
14 May 2013  America's Cup: Barclay expects Cup to proceed as planned
13 May 2013  Gladwell's Line: Tragedy in San Francisco + RYA Tribute Video
12 May 2013  America's Cup: Artemis Racing's damaged AC72 is pulled from the water
12 May 2013  America's Cup: Artemis Racing seek a cessation in media speculation
MORE STORIES ...






News - USA and the World

Join the crew of the ORMA60 TeamVodafoneSailing as they slash 20 minutes off their previous record for the PIC Coastal Classic on Friday. The Coastal Classic is a 119nm course from Auckland to Russell in the Bay of Islands. Originally conceived as a drag race between multihulls and monohulls ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race: Leaders pass Fernando and head for Cape Town *Feature by Richard Gladwell/Sail-World.com/nz
Volvo Ocean Race Control reports that the lead boats in the 40,000nm race have rounded, or rather passed, the turning point off Fernando de Noronha. They are now proceeding down the Brazilian coast, to round the back of the South Atlantic high pressure zone , and have what is expected to be a fast ride to the Leg 1 finish in Cape Town. ... [more]  

Melges 32 Gold Cup on the horizon by International Melges 32 Class Association
With a fleet and sailors as diverse as the nightlife on Ocean Avenue, the Melges 32 Gold Cup, hosted by the Coconut Grove Sailing Club kicks off in just two weeks, featuring eighteen ultra-high performance Melges 32 teams from nine different countries. ... [more]  

With less than a day left to reach the turning mark at Fernando de Nonoha, 220nm off the coast of Brazil, Abu Dhabi Ocean Racing has retained the lead she built in the Doldrums. She is unlikely to be headed, although the second boat on the water, Team Brunel is projected to be less than an hour behind at Fernando ... [more]  

One flight of the Quarter Finals was sailed Friday afternoon following the completion of the Qualifying Rounds and the selection of opponents and draw for boats. The Quarter Finals set Ian Williams against Marek Stanczyk, Taylor Canfield against Steffan Lindberg, Eric Monnin against Pierre Morvan, and an all Swedish pairing of Bjorn Hansen against Johnie Berntsson. ... [more]  

What could be better than racing for three days with over 2000 of the world's best sailors? How about racing for four days! The St.Maarten Heineken Regatta is proud to announce that their pre-event, the Gill Commodore's Cup, is accepting entries in all boat categories (excluding Lottery Class). ... [more]  

The seventh day of the La Torche PWA Grand Slam saw the light winds continue, despite a promising forecast for today. In the late afternoon a few of the sailors took part in a tow-in training session as there is scope to run a tow-in contest tomorrow, with the forecast looking glassy. ... [more]  

Picture postcard perfect conditions returned to Bermuda for the third and final day of Qualifying at the Argo Group Gold Cup, the sixth stage of the 2014 Alpari World Match Racing Tour. After yesterday’s torrential rain, Hamilton Harbour was bathed in glorious sunshine and breeze that by lunchtime was gusting up to the mid-teens. ... [more]  

Rolex Middle Sea Race - Keeping a good watch by Media Royal Malta Yacht Club
Peter Dimech, Principal Race Officer and Race Chair spoke about the storm that raged through the Rolex Middle Sea Race fleet. “The remaining yachts racing in the Rolex Middle Sea Race are expected to arrive at the Royal Malta Yacht Club by today and tomorrow. Whilst the wind speed has decreased, the sea state is still significant and we are keeping a close watch on the yachts still at sea. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Onboard Team Alvimedica. I’d hate to come across as being impossible to please but after days of wanting out of the doldrums, days of struggling with routines, with sleep, with a lack of regularity and consistency to our schedules, and of course--predictability to the weather—we’re 'out' and still trying to find it ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Day 13 onboard Team SCA. I’m unsure if I should be nervous, excited, stressed, or thrilled today. As today I get to have fish guts smeared over me only to then become officially apart of King Neptune’s kingdom. ... [more]  

There was a shakeup at the top on day three of the 2014 RS:X Youth Worlds in Clearwater, Florida! Fully recharged thanks to the lay day yesterday, all competitors were eager to enter the final stretch of the competition in Clearwater, and the planing conditions in the forecast certainly contributed to the excitement on the beach. ... [more]  

The opening day of the 105-boat China Cup International Regatta saw old rivalries renewed in the Beneteau 40.7 class, as Vatti Sailing stole victory from Vanke Longcheer in the opening Simpson Marine Passage Race from Hong Kong to Shenzhen. ... [more]  

Team Alvimedica Navigational Strategist, Anderson Reggio, explains the issues ahead of the crews in the remaining half of leg 1 of the 2014-15 Volvo Ocean Race. After the Equator and Fernando, the weather looks to be shaping up to be pretty standard for the South Atlantic. The St Helena High which typically dominates this body of water is the main driver for breeze in the short term. ... [more]  

The next landmark, or ‘sea mark’ if you will, for Leg 1 is crossing the Equator, as Team Alvimedica continue to make their way south to round Fernando de Noronha off the coast of Brazil. Crossing this latitude is not like crossing any other on their way around the world, but has special significance for sailors who have never crossed the 0° parallel of latitude. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15 - Mapfre cruzará el Ecuador hacia las 13:00 aproximadamente. ... [more]  

Argo Group Gold Cup - A front slowly crossing Bermuda brought with it an overcast sky and rain squalls. Nonetheless, despite squelching their way ashore completely soaked, the Group 2 crews enjoyed the morning’s stronger breeze, the wind less shifty having veered into the southwest overnight, blowing down Hamilton Harbour rather than across it. ... [more]  

RenaissanceRe Junior Gold Cup - In second place, Adam Larson of Bermuda has seven points and had a great day on the water today. Larson, whose family is still without electricity after Hurricane Gonzalo, said he has been getting to bed a lot earlier these days and feels that the conditions also favored his performance today. ... [more]  

As predicted in last night's preview in Sail-World, the ORMA 60 TeamVodafone Sailing has set a new course record for the 119nm course in the PIC Coastal Classic. ... [more]  

Taylor Canfield (ISV) US One, top seed in Group 2, is the first skipper to qualify for the Quarter Finals in the 2014 Argo Group Cup. Canfield lost his first match in day one of racing against Chris Poole (USA) Riptide Racing. Since then the number two skipper on the Alpari World Match Racing Tour has sailed to seven straight points. ... [more]  

The forecast for day six at the La Torche PWA Grand Slam offered a slight possibility of producing some racing, but unfortunately the wind never really materialised meaning the sailors spent another day on hold. Throughout the day there were gusts of up to 10 knots, but the wind failed to improve beyond that. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Day 12 onboard Team SCA. This morning the boat was so quiet you could hear a pin drop, shortly after sun up we were hooning along in 20kts in a torrential downpour, by late afternoon we were sailing backwards, and who knows what tonight will bring. ... [more]  

The push and shove of 12 knots of Atlantic breeze – things are looking up in the Volvo Ocean Race. On board Abu Dhabi Ocean Racing, things are looking up. First in the fleet, and out of the Doldrums, they’re heading fast towards the Equator, trade winds blowing gusts of encouragement around their ears. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race - Day 12 for Team Alvimedica by Amory Ross, Team Alvimedica
Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Day 12 onboard Team Alvimedica. There is no question as to the origins of the phrase 'down in the doldrums;' the monotony of these days is painfully apparent. It’s a pattern too familiar: a night of variable conditions—torrential rain and 20 knots of wind one minute, no wind and starry skies the next. Feast or famine. ... [more]  

With only nine days remaining until the close of entries, one of the smallest, most audacious and memorable yachts in the history of the CYCA’s Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race, appropriately became the 100th entry. A mere 10.5 metres, James Cameron’s Hick 35, Luna Sea, will again do duty as one of the pintsized yachts in fleet for the 70th edition of the 628 nautical mile race. ... [more]  

Today was the last day of competition at the Student Yachting World Cup. Even though England’s victory was already for sure, the top-5-ranking could change a lot with two more races: Italy was second with 46 pts, Ireland third with 47 pts, Norway fourth (52 pts) and Switzerland fifth (58.2 pts)… the USA followed with 59 pts! ... [more]  

A varied and international fleet ranging from 40 to 100ft (12.19 to 30.48m) will set off for Grenada on Saturday 29th November from Lanzarote, the most eastern in the Canary Islands chain, in the Royal Ocean Racing Club's Transatlantic Race. ... [more]  

The United States will be the second most heavily represented nation at the Star Sailors League Finals when they take place at Nassau in the Bahamas between December 1st and 7th. Reflecting the consistency, quality and number of sailors involved in the Star class, the United States has the largest representation in the Star Sailors League with 294 skippers and 376 crew. ... [more]  

Airbus and Oracle Team USA have forged a technology partnership. As Official Innovation Partner of Oracle Team USA for the 35th America’s Cup, Airbus will share the know-how of its engineers and experts in fields such as aerodynamics, instrumentation and simulation, composites, structures, hydraulics and data analysis to work with the Oracle Team USA design team. ... [more]  

Thursday has proved another dramatic day in the story of the 2014 Rolex Middle Sea Race. While yesterday (Wednesday) was a day of seamanship and survival as yachts battled storm force winds, it was also a day of arrivals as the same winds pushed competitors to the finish. ... [more]  

The Royal Malta Yacht Club has been a hive of activity both day and night, welcoming back yachts taking part in the Rolex Middle Sea Race. By Midday on Day Six 34 yachts have finished the race and 25 yachts have retired. Each and every sailor that has taken part, including those that are still out there, has a story to tell for years to come. ... [more]  

Ian Williams (GBR) GAC Pindar made a near perfect start to in the Argo Group Gold Cup in Bermuda yesterday. The British skipper who stands top of the the Alpari World Match Racing Tour and is second in the ISAF rankings, goes into today's remaining round robin flights leading group 1. ... [more]  

Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15, Onboard Team Brunel. 'At this rate, it will take a century before we get to Cape Town,' sighs Jens Dolmer, standing on the bow. He is trying in vain to push the flapping foresail outwards. There is hardly a breath of wind. In the distance, the sun is sinking into the ocean. ... [more]  

The 2014 Severne Starboard Aloha Classic is coming...
Rolex Middle Sea Race 2014 - Artie's heroic return
Argo Group Gold Cup - Slender lead for Marek Stanczyk
Ben Ainslie Racing foiling on the Solent + Video *Feature
METS names DAME Award nominees
La Torche PWA Grand Slam - A day of rest for wave sailors
Rolex Middle Sea Race - A day of reckoning for the fleet
Volvo Ocean Race - Playing the Doldrums lottery
Volvo Ocean Race - Dongfeng Race Team takes on the Doldrums
Volvo Ocean Race - Team Alvimedica, somewhere in the windless ITCZ
Rolex Middle Sea Race - Artie gunning for glory
Volvo Ocean Race - Another perspective from Team SCA
Rolex Farr 40 World Championship - Success in San Francisco
RS:X Youth World Windsurfing Championship - Intense racing + Video
Rolex Middle Sea Race - Big breeze and lumpy seas
The first sail that changes lives
Volvo Ocean Race: Blogs from the Boats - Leg 1, Day 10 plus Videos *Feature
Volvo Ocean Race: Leg 1 turns inside out in Doldums *Feature
34th Student Yachting World Cup La Rochelle 2014 - Fifth race day
2014 Argo Group Gold Cup - Match racers defy Gonzalo
Volvo Ocean Race: Big gains for two boats in Doldrums *Feature   
Argo Group Gold Cup - Qualifying Groups set   
Renaissance Re Junior Gold Cup - Kids breeze past Hurricane Gonzalo   
DSS to revolutionise IMOCA 60s, both new and old   
ISAF Sailing World Cup Miami: Groupe Beneteau sponsors US Sailing Team   
Volvo Ocean Race - The bright side of the Doldrums   
Volvo Ocean Race - Team Vestas Wind contemplates the tropics + Video   
Volvo Ocean Race - Dull day, crazy night for Dongfeng Race Team   
Volvo Ocean Race - Team SCA ready for equator crossing   
Volvo Ocean Race - Tough challenge for Brunel's Pablo Arrarte Elorza   
RS:X Youth Worlds - Hard work on day 1 + Video   
St. Maarten Heineken Regatta - NoR released, entries open for 2015   
Rolex Middle Sea Race - A turning point for the fleet   
Volvo Ocean Race 2014-15 - Leg one – Doldrums for dummies   
Volvo Ocean Race: Blogs from the Boats - Leg 1, Day 9 plus Videos *Feature   
Rolex Middle Sea Race 2014 - Fight to the finish   
Student Yachting World Cup - Fourth race day + Video   
New improved swell forecasting and more locations from PredictWind   
Volvo Ocean Race: Day 9 final report - Lead continually changing   
Renaissance Re Junior Gold Cup - An opportunity for growth   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/FaceBook-icon.png  http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW US
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT