sail-world.com
 
 
News Home Cruising Australia Cruising USA Cruising Canada Boats for Sale Sail-World Racing Photo Gallery FishingBoating
Video Gallery Newsletters
Sail-World.com : Jet stream gets fish in hot water
Jet stream gets fish in hot water

'Ocean ’heat wave’ linked to shift in atmospheric current - Jet stream gets fish in hot water'    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©

Oceanographer Glen Gawarkiewicz was just off the coast of North Carolina in May 2012 when he noticed something odd.

'The water was much warmer than usual,' he recalled. 'It shocked me, because I’ve been going out since 1984 and I know what to expect there, and it was just totally different.'

By the end of the summer, he would learn just how different. During the first half of 2012, sea surface temperatures off the northeast coast of the United States were the highest in the 150 years that records have been kept. They persisted for more than six months—an unprecedented warming that disrupted fisheries up and down the coast.

Cool-water fish that fishermen had always counted on finding in the broad stretch from south of Long Island to south of Nantucket just weren’t there in any great numbers, said Rhode Island-based fisherman Fred Mattera. Reports began to come in that those species—including squid, whiting, and butterfish—were showing up in the waters off of Maine and even Newfoundland.

'They never saw a squid there before,' said Mattera. 'Never.'

At the same time, fishermen off Rhode Island were hauling up grouper, cobia, and other species usually caught off the Carolinas and Florida.

Gawarkiewicz, a scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), suggested that postdoctoral scholar Ke Chen try to track down what caused the extended warming. What Chen found surprised everyone.

Ke Chen - Jet stream gets fish in hot water -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  


Everywhere at once

At first, Chen thought he would find the source of the warming in the ocean itself. In the autumn of 2011, just a few months before the heat wave, the Gulf Stream had diverted northward from its usual course, bringing warm subtropical waters farther north than usual near Georges Bank. Perhaps that produced an aftereffect that lasted into the following spring.

Chen obtained data on sea surface temperatures from moorings deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at four sites along the East Coast from Virginia Beach northward to the Gulf of Maine.

He found that the warming occurred at the same time at all four buoys, beginning in November 2011. If it had been caused by currents, it should have shown up at different times at the four buoys. From January through June 2012, the sea surface temperatures generally ranged from 3 to 4.3°F (1.7 to 2.4°C) above the average temperatures measured at the same sites during the previous decade. Some short-term spikes reached nearly 11°F (6°C) higher.

Not only that, but the warming extended far below the surface. Chen also analyzed data from NOAA’s Oleander Project, which involves a container ship traveling back and forth between New York and Bermuda. At regular intervals, it deploys expendable bathythermographs that transmit depth and temperature readings as they fall to the seafloor.

Chen found that from January through April 2012, the warming reached 164 feet (50 meters) deep. Even as summer approached, the upper 50 feet (15 meters) of the ocean remained much warmer than the average for that time of year.

'It’s a dramatic change in the ocean over the entire continental shelf,' said Chen. 'The warming is not only at the surface. We saw a shift over the entire water column.'

Eyes on the sky

What’s even more impressive about the temperature differences is that Chen had compared 2012 temperatures with those from 2000 to 2010—a time when average sea surface temperatures had already risen over historic levels because of climate change.

'A lot of times when people compare anomalies, it’s over the past 30 years or 50 years,' said Gawarkiewicz. 'We specifically chose the last 10 years because the system has already changed. This 2012 anomaly stands out even compared to the recent, perturbed situation.'

Warming over such a vast scale did not originate in the ocean, Chen determined, so he turned to the other major player in Earth’s climate system: the atmosphere. Data from NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Prediction enabled him to calculate the flow of heat between the atmosphere and the ocean. He found that compared to other winters, the ocean lost much less heat during the winter of 2011-2012 relative to the average of the previous ten years, leaving sea surface temperatures much higher.

Chen investigated why that may have happened. He found that during the winter of 2011 and early spring of 2012, the air above the East Coast was warmer than normal. Oceanographer John Bane at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill helped him to examine the jet stream, a fast-moving current in the upper atmosphere. Flowing along more than 23,000 feet above Earth’s surface, the jet stream is a constantly moving border between Arctic air to the north and warmer subtropical air to the south. It usually follows a wavy course that, in most winters, periodically dips down across much of the U.S.

Ocean ’heat wave’ linked to shift in atmospheric current - Jet stream gets fish in hot water -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  


An unusual pattern

In the winter of 2011-2012, the pattern was different in two important ways: It stayed farther north than usual, and it was flatter, without the big loops that normally bring frigid air over much of the country and Atlantic coastal waters.

Chen concluded that the jet stream’s unusual trajectory for much of the winter of 2011-2012 caused relatively warm air to remain above coastal waters, and so they did not lose as much heat as they normally do during the winter. When spring came and the water began to warm up, it had a head start—and ended up much warmer than usual. The air had caused a heat wave in the ocean.

Chen’s study was published in the January 2014 issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. Gawarkiewicz and Steven Lentz of WHOI, along with Bane, were co-authors on the paper.

Chen thinks that 2012 was an anomaly, not a new pattern. The jet stream returned to a 'normal' pattern in the winter of 2012-13, dipping far enough south to allow U.S. coastal waters to cool off. Although official measurements for the past few months aren’t in yet, the same seems to be the case so far in the winter of 2013-2014.

Glen Gawarkiewicz - Jet stream gets fish in hot water -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  


Fleeing the heat

But the story doesn’t end there. A change of that magnitude to any environment is bound to affect the organisms that live there.

'It wreaked havoc,' said Gawarkiewicz of the 2012 heat wave. 'The whole marine ecosystem was affected by this.'

The spring plankton bloom, which usually starts in April, began in February. Seabirds from Florida to Iceland were found far outside their usual range. So were fish, including many commercially important species. Mattera said the warming was a big topic of conversation among his colleagues early in 2012.

'What struck us was how large a mass of warm water that was, and how it just stayed there,' said Mattera, who is on the board of the Commercial Fisheries Research Foundation (CFRF). 'And it was some hot water. There were some times and places that the water was in the 80s.'

Rhode Island lobsterman David Spencer, president of the board of the CFRF, said the 2012 heat wave was an extreme example of something fishermen have been dealing with in recent years.

'The general patterns seem to be more variable now than they have been in past years,' he said. 'The seasonality of when we catch the lobsters and crabs is in flux, as well as where we catch them.'

'In the past, certain months, we just knew,' said Mattera. 'After Christmas time, we would go out toward those canyons, and we’d start to look for butterfish and we’d look for squid. You traditionally did that, year after year. And after a half a day or a day, a few other boats would come, and we’d get on a school of fish, and we’d make a living there. Well, in the last decade or so, that hasn’t been consistent any longer.'

No new normal

Spencer and Mattera said they and their colleagues benefit from the workshops and other communications with oceanographers such as WHOI’s Gawarkiewicz and Al Plueddeman, but still face a lack of information when it comes to deciding where to go on any given day to have the best chance of finding fish. Conditions simply are changing too much and too fast.

'Currently, management cannot adapt that quickly, primarily because the science can’t react that quickly to guide the management,' said Spencer. 'One of my biggest concerns in a changing environment is we don’t have the scientific or management capabilities to adapt to changing conditions in a timespan that we need to have. I think there’s going to be a lot of lost economic opportunities if we can’t streamline this.'

He and Mattera said recent efforts to survey fishermen as soon as they get back to port are helpful and should be expanded, with the results posted online right away so fishermen can find out what’s being caught where. If they have to toss out their old logbooks that told them where they were likely to find lobster or whitefish at a given time, up-to-the-minute surveys would help them navigate the rapidly changing waters and help them stay in business.

'Fuel is almost $4 a gallon,' said Mattera. 'I can’t afford to go hunting all over the ocean for four days, spend $10,000, and not even get $500 worth of fish.'

Looking for clues

The 2012 warming event has scientists scrambling too, said Gawarkiewicz. Even against a backdrop of increasingly variable conditions, that event stands out.

'The scary part is that, number one, it worked differently than it ever did before, and number two, the magnitude of it,' he said. 'This magnitude and duration are just not something that any computer model had predicted before. That’s why I think this time period bears a lot of study—how are the organisms going to respond?'

He and Chen are especially interested in how the heat affected currents along the shelfbreak, where the relatively shallow continental shelf drops off to the ocean depths. Those currents are crucially important in providing nutrients to plankton and everything that depends on them, from fish to whales.

Ocean ’heat wave’ linked to shift in atmospheric current - Jet stream gets fish in hot water -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  


Predicting the future

Chen, whose expertise is in modeling, plans to develop a model to look at details of the interplay between atmosphere and ocean dynamics on a regional scale.

The kinds of regional-scale changes that are plaguing Northeast fishermen are too small for current global circulation models, which have a spatial resolution of about 60 miles—about the same breadth as the entire continental shelf. They also run predictions out decades or longer.

'How do you go from a 30-year run with this global model to what will happen 10 miles south of Rhode Island, where the squid like to go, in July?' said Gawarkiewicz.

Chen will be aided by data from NOAA and the Pioneer Array, a network of ocean observatories now being set up by WHOI. It consists of overlapping grids of moored instruments, autonomous vehicles, and gliders deployed across the edge of the continental shelf south of Cape Cod. Over the next five years, it will monitor temperature, salinity, current speed and direction, air-sea heat flux, and other key parameters over the outer continental shelf and upper continental slope.

'We really want to know if we can predict the same conditions, if a similar story happens again in the future,' said Chen. 'If we see a Gulf Stream diversion again in the winter, or we see anomalous jet stream motion in the winter, can we predict similar conditions like 2012 in the coming spring? To do that we need to have a better idea of the interplay between the atmosphere and the ocean dynamics from year to year.'

This research was funded by the Cooperative Institute for the North Atlantic Region, the Office of Naval Research, and the National Science Foundation. Data were provided by the National Data Buoy Center, the Oleander Project, and the High Density XBT Transect Program of the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, the Ship of Opportunity Transect Surveys program of the Northeast Fisheries Science Center, and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction.


by Cherie Winner


  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.sail-world.com/index.cfm?nid=120341

11:37 AM Sat 22 Mar 2014GMT


Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.







Sail-World Cruising News - local and the World

In 2013, over 955,000 boats changed hands on the pre-owned boat market. That meant for a nearly a million boat buyers, hiring an accredited marine surveyor to inspect their potential dreamboat was often the first step after finding it. ... [more]  

In a world first study researchers have found a coral-eating fish that disguises its smell to hide from predators. 'For many animals vision is less important than their sense of smell,' says study lead author Dr Rohan Brooker from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (Coral CoE) at James Cook University. ... [more]  

Writing in the Journal of Animal Ecology the authors set out to answer important and fundamental questions on how life in the ocean will respond to projected changes in the coming decades. Despite evidence of increasing acidification of the world's oceans, questions remain over whether marine species will be able to adapt to these changing conditions. ... [more]  

By studying the colour of seabird guano in the infrared part of the spectrum the researchers from British Antarctic Survey (BAS), University of Cambridge and University of Edinburgh were able to identify and isolate the poo's unique spectral signature from bare rocks and snow. ... [more]  

Sail-World is now live testing the changed website format. If you are using this format for the first time, please scroll to the bottom of the site and check that your region is set for your region and not some other. It can be correctly set up using the drop down boxes. Then go to the top, click refresh, and you should be away. ... [more]  

Oceanographer Bob Pickart will never forget his first cruise aboard Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s (WHOI) research vessel Knorr. It was February 1997, and the ship was headed to the fierce Labrador Sea in the dead of winter. Sailing into the teeth of wintry conditions was the whole point of the 47-day research cruise. ... [more]  

Fifty-five years ago, the group of twelve nations who’d been involved in the International Geophysical Year of 1957 signed the Treaty. The Treaty has ensured that Antarctica remains a natural reserve, devoted to peace and science. ... [more]  

Scientists urge protection of world's deltas by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Extensive areas of the world’s deltas — which accommodate major cities such as Shanghai, Dhaka and Bangkok — will be drowned in the next century by rising sea levels, according to a Comment piece in this week’s Nature. ... [more]  

The BBC has reported that nine Somali pirates should get thousands of Euros because they were not immediately brought before a French judge, the court ruled. One is to get 9,000 Euros (£7,000) and the others sums of up to 7,000 Euros. The judges faulted France for keeping them in custody for an extra 48 hours. ... [more]  

Yacht lost on Majuro by John Martin
Monday morning I awoke early and watched the sky grow light listening to the quiet morning sounds here in our anchorage off the island of Eneko. At 7:30 the cruiser’s net anchor started off with the usual good morning, and she asked if there was any emergency traffic. ... [more]  

When we taught the intense 12-week Professional Mariner Program at the Chapman School of Seamanship, top priority the first week was to get each student into a mindset where they inspected a boat from stem to stern before casting off and after they tied up. Note the dual inspections. Bookends if you will. Before sailing; after sailing. Every time. ... [more]  

Leopard by Finland crossed the finish line in Rodney Bay Saint Lucia this morning at 01:09:51 UTC (02/12 21:09:51 Local time) smashing the ARC Course Record by 2 days 6 hours 45 minutes and 19 seconds. Sailing across the Atlantic from Las Palmas de Gran Canaria to Rodney Bay, Saint Lucia in a total of 8 days 14 hours, 39 minutes and 51 seconds. ... [more]  

Fort Lauderdale greets Oceans of Hope yacht by Sailing Sclerosis Foundation
Oceans of Hope sailed into Fort Lauderdale this morning at 11:00 a.m. local time to an enthusiastic dockside audience awaiting their arrival. Cheers ensued, horns blared and the crew looked happy to arrive in the tropical landscape of Florida. It has been a long and arduous journey for some, including Christina Lamb Sidell, who joined the Oceans of Hope crew several weeks ago in New Jersey. ... [more]  

As I look back over nearly 40 years of sailing around Mediterranean waters I can't help but reflect on time passing by. 'Isn't it a bit like painting the Forth Bridge?' a friend asked of my pottering around looking at harbours and anchorages. ... [more]  

Try as you might, it just won’t work. Ropes are for pulling, and pulling alone. Similarly, most things on a boat and in a rig have a specific job to do and hence reason for the way they’re designed. Form follows function, after all. So with this adage firmly in mind, let’s see what Sydney Rigging Specialists have been up to and why they stick to this theory, like rust marks on a trusty kite. ... [more]  

2014 has truly been an Odyssey year, as our boats have criss-crossed the Atlantic on epic journeys, starting in January when the Atlantic Odyssey II yachts sailed from La Palma to Grenada, and followed by the summer adventure of the Blue Planet Odyssey yachts up in the High Arctic attempting the transit of the North West Passage. ... [more]  

Sailing within the ARC+ fleet, Alubat Cignale 18 Eleonora 2 crossed the ARC+ finish line at 07:38:46 local time after a fast 2100NM passage from Mindelo in the Cape Verde Islands. The international crew on board were in great spirits having enjoyed their 12 days at sea and are now looking forward to experiencing the delights of the Caribbean. ... [more]  

Every year, thousands of people suffer from CFP, a poisoning syndrome caused by eating toxic reef fish. CFP symptoms are both gastrointestinal and neurological, bringing on bouts of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, muscle aches, and in some cases, the reversal of hot and cold sensations. Some neurological symptoms can persist for days to months to years after exposure. ... [more]  

Little Pines Multimedia has released a new series of instructional apps for Android available at their website Apps4Sailing.com, Google Play and Amazon. ... [more]  

Scientists from the UK, USA and Australia say the new technology provides accurate ice thickness measurements from areas that were previously too difficult to access. The results, published this week in the journal Nature Geoscience (Monday 24 November 2014), step up the pace of research in the polar regions aimed at understanding the dramatic sea ice changes in the context of climate change. ... [more]  

The Antigua and Barbuda Marine Association (ABMA) is very pleased to announce that Falmouth Harbour Marina, Catamaran Marina and Antigua Yacht Club Marina are now providing only ultra-low sulphur fuel to yachts. This is as a result of joint efforts of the marinas and the ABMA in raising the issue of the fuel previously supplied having a sulphur content higher than legal requirements in Europe ... [more]  

The new application from PredictWind for Mac and PC is revolutionary for accessing weather data when offshore. Accessing GRIB files, Weather Routing, GMDSS forecasts and Satellite Imagery is now a simple task with the unique and user friendly interface. ... [more]  

The government will expedite permitting for yachts wanting to enter the country’s ports, from taking weeks to taking one day only, with an online one-stop service protocol under the management of the Foreign Ministry, said Coordinating Maritime Affairs Minister Indroyono Soesilo. ... [more]  

As an investment in a FLIR camera is not inexpensive or even one that can be taken quickly due to having to carefully think through the installation process, we thought long and hard about the perceived benefits of the system. At the end of the day we decided to go ahead with the FLIR camera and also decided, that we would pair the FLIR thermal camera with the new Furuno TZ9. ... [more]  

The 29th Atlantic Rally for Cruisers (ARC) set sail today bound for Saint Lucia following a delayed start due to strong winds locally in the harbour of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria yesterday. For only the third time in the rally's history, the decision was made to delay the start, initially planned for 12:30 on Sunday 23 November by 20 hours. ... [more]  

We set out for the summer cruise from a harbour in northwest Scotland. There were three boats out of the normal four. The fourth was somewhere to the south of us, and had promised to catch up if we waited for a night in the anchorage behind the island at the end of Loch Hourn. ... [more]  

Some dogs were born for the water, others less so. The key to boating with dogs, says Boat Owners Association of The United States (BoatUS), is taking it slow and making safety number one. ... [more]  

A North American tale but the same applies world-wide. Steffen Schmidt wanted to move his sailboat from Seattle to Rhode Island. Schmidt was not unfamiliar with hiring boat transportation services, and had done it once before with no issues. But this time was different: the boat was delivered in Wickford, Rhode Island with its mast gashed and mangled; the prop and cutlass bearing damaged. Then pro ... [more]  

Atlantic Odyssey skipper Nicolas Hauzy had to be evacuated from his yacht on Saturday evening after he broke his ankle in rough seas. Nicholas was attempting to fix a fault in the hydraulic steering when the accident happened around 1200 GMT on Saturday 22 November. ... [more]  

ARC 2014 - ARC start delayed by World Cruising Club
ARC 2014: Strong winds blowing through the harbour of Las Palmas have caused ARC organisers World Cruising Club to announce a delay to the start of ARC 2014. Whilst the front that has brought 4 days of heavy rain squalls to Gran Canaria is passing through, locally strong winds make it unsafe to manoeuvre boats in the harbour. ... [more]  

Reporting this week in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, an international team of scientists describe how they were surprised to discover that the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains show little sign of erosion, and that its saw-toothed towering crags resemble the modern ranges like the European Alps or Rocky Mountains. ... [more]  

Clear the Decks! by Paul Shard, Bahamas
Twenty-five years ago when Sheryl and I were building and outfitting our first boat, 'Two-Step', a Classic 37, we tried to imagine sailing her in a storm. We did a lot of research about storm tactics and as a result we designed the deck layout so we could handle most tasks from the cockpit and bought heavy weather sails. ... [more]  

The world’s largest sailing media group, Sail-World.com, held its first continental group meeting at the Marine Equipment Trade Show (METS) this week. METS is the world’s largest B2B Marine show and this year it had a record 1358 exhibitors and more than 21,000 Marine industry representatives. ... [more]  

British Cycling grows by over 500%, can sailing do the same?
Extinction risk not the answer for reef futures
ARC+ fleet sets sail for Saint Lucia
Sail safer with these 'landfall light' secrets
Sailing the Mediterranean – An infographic
New transducer line from Garmin boasts scanning sonar
Building on borrowed time + Video
Marion to Bermuda Race announces the M2M2B Yacht Rally
34 Atlantic Odyssey yachts cross start line off Arrecife
World ARC fleet explores Zululand
Visit Doyle Sails New Zealand at METS 2014
ARC 2014 Opening Ceremony: Flags and bands, one week to the start
Sailing veteran celebrates his 20th Atlantic Rally for Cruisers
All set for ARC+ arrivals in São Vicente
Caribbean 1500 - Lest We Forget: Crews who won't make it to Tortola
Crews visit ARC Forest at Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Security Council renews action to fight piracy off Somali Coast
World Odyssey Race cancelled
Caribbean 1500 - One fleet, two very different stories
Eccletic ARC fleet assemble in Las Palmas
Antigua 2 Falmouth - Notice of Race released for 2015 edition   
Oceans of Hope yacht arrives in New York City in unique global voyage   
Spirit of Tradition   
Tropical storm-like conditions in Malta and Sicily as Medicane hits   
ARC+ Cape Verde fleet slows, more wind expected tomorrow   
Top 20 cruising realities no-one talks about!   
Busy schedule begins for ARC crews in Las Palmas   
Slow progress in the Caribbean 1500 fleet   
Crystal Blues finds good medicine in Penang   
ARC+ Cape Verde sets sail from Las Palmas de Gran Canaria   
Destination: Balmy Brentwood Bay and peaceful Tod Inlet   
Safety and enjoyment order of the day in Marina Lanzarote   
First ARC Bahamas boats make landfall in the Caribbean   
First arrivals of World ARC fleet enter Richard’s Bay, South Africa   
No room for complacency in Gulf of Guinea   
250 kilos of cocaine seized from UK-bound yacht in joint operation   
North American Rally to Caribbean - Greater than the sum of its parts   
New Rayglass ProJet on duty at Auckland Airport   
Caribbean 1500 fleet are getting their sea legs   
The reliability of C-Map electronic charts in the Arctic   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/FaceBook-icon.png  http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph, contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW CRU NH
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT