sail-world.com
 
 
News Home Cruising Australia Cruising USA Cruising Canada Boats for Sale Sail-World Racing Photo Gallery FishingBoating
Video Gallery Newsletters
Sail-World.com : A Mooring in Iceberg Alley
A Mooring in Iceberg Alley

'In 2013, the research team returned to Sermilik Fjord to find that a large passing iceberg had pushed down the SF1 mooring's top float to depths where increased water pressure caused it to implode. The researchers dragged the bottom of the fjord to recover the mooring. Its instruments survived the trauma and recorded data that helped the researchers learn about ocean's circulation near the glacier.'    Fiamma Straneo, WHOI

Fjords may link warming oceans and melting glaciers.The fatal blow was definitely not the first hit. For 13 months, icebergs had plowed over Mooring SF1, again and again. They pushed the long line of underwater scientific instruments toward the seafloor in a Greenland fjord. Usually, these chunks of ice—sometimes as tall as a skyscraper and as wide as seven city blocks—would hold down SF1 for several hours and then move along, allowing SF1 to resiliently float back up.

This may not seem like a safe location for scientific equipment, but our research group deliberately placed SF1 in the line of iceberg fire in Sermilik Fjord, 20 miles from the terminus of Helheim Glacier. This narrow coastal inlet, abutted by steep cliffs, connects at one end to the open ocean; at the other end, the vertical ice face of the glacier forms a back wall nearly 2,000 feet tall.

The aft deck of the M/V Viking Madsalex was the staging area to deploy the SF1 mooring in 2011 and for dragging operations to recover it in 2013. Clockwise from left WHOI scientist Magdalena Andres, MIT-WHOI graduate student Rebecca Jackson, WHOI oceanographer Fiamma Straneo, and WHOI mooring technician Will istrom. -  Nick Beaird, WHOI  

Sermilik, one of the many fjords on the east coast of Greenland, is long (60 miles), narrow (4 miles wide) and deep (½ mile). You would need go hundreds of miles offshore of New England to reach water this deep. But in Greenland, the cliffs that line the fjords extend far beneath the ocean surface, forming underwater canyons that connect the open ocean to glaciers.

A huge iceberg looms over the 82-foot long M/V Viking Madsalex in Sermilink Fjord. -  Alexander Korabiev  

The research team used the M/V Viking Madsalex to deploy the SF1 mooring in Sermilik Fjord in 2011 and to retrieve it two years later. -  William Ostrom, WHOI  

A satellite image shows Helheim Glacier, one of many glaciers that drain ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet into coastal fjords that connect to the open ocean. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

In this deep water near Helheim Glacier, our team, led by scientists Fiamma Straneo of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and David Sutherland of the University of Oregon, assembled Sermilik Fjord Mooring No. 1 (hence SF1) off the side of a ship. Setting up a tower of underwater instruments is no small feat. First, we surveyed the area for a promising location, using an echo sounder that bounces sound waves off the seafloor. Then, piece by piece, we connected and snaked out SF1’s various components along the water’s surface, starting from the top: floats, wire, instrument, wire, another instrument, wire, instrument, and so on. Last, we attached the anchor and released the whole contraption.

The ridge of ice is the terminus of Helheim Glacier, where it flows into the ocean. To the right of the ridge, the fjord is covered by a thick melange of floating icebergs and sea ice. That makes the region near the glacier's terminus inaccessible by boat. On the mountains in the background, you can see a 'bathtub ring' indicating the prevoius extent of the glacier before it had thinned and retreated in recent years. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

As it fell to the seafloor, the anchor pulled the string of instruments, wires, and floats into the fjord’s abyss. If all went well (though there is no way to tell at deployment), the anchor would end up at the bottom. At the top, a buoyant top float would stretch a vertical but flexible, ¼-mile-long cable strung with instruments measuring water temperature, salinity, pressure, and velocity. We also deployed several other moorings elsewhere in the fjord, in safer locations much farther from the glacier.

During deployment of the SF1 mooring in 2011, the buoyant yellow sphere at the top of the mooring line floated atop the surface. Then an anchor was attached to the bottom end of the line to pull the mooring under water. -  Fiamma Straneo, Woods Hole Oceanographic  

The lower half of SF1 looked like a standard oceanographic mooring, but unlike many moorings, it had no buoy at the ocean surface. The mooring ended 1,000 feet below the surface with a buoyant float—an orange, metal sphere that holds the whole apparatus upright. The mooring was specially designed to stop short of the surface to lessen the chances of iceberg collisions, though obviously it could not avoid them all.

A Mooring in Iceberg Alley. Fjords may link warming oceans and melting glaciers. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

Ice sheets and sea level rise
Helheim Glacier and many others around Greenland are slow-moving rivers of ice that drain the Greenland Ice Sheet into fjords. The fjords receive a hefty influx of icebergs breaking off the glaciers’ terminuses, as well as water from ice that melts—both on ice sheet’s surface and at the underwater interface where glaciers meet the ocean.

Helheim Glacier is a river of ice flowing in this photo from left to right, from the ice sheet dominating the interior of Greenland to the coast. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

Ice lost at the ice sheet’s margins counteracts snow accumulation atop the ice sheet. If the accumulation and loss do not exactly balance, the ice sheet will shrink or expand. In recent decades, both the flow of glaciers and surface melting of the ice sheet have accelerated, causing a net loss of ice.

Scientists largely understand why surface melting has increased: Air temperatures around Greenland have warmed. But why have the glaciers accelerated? And before we get to that question, why should we care?

When glaciers accelerate and the Greenland Ice Sheet shrinks, the lost ice ends up as water in the ocean. That raises global sea levels. Currently, the imbalance in Greenland increases sea level by 0.3 inches per decade, about a quarter of the total rate of sea level rise over the past two decades. To project future changes in sea level, however, we need to have a much better understanding of how glaciers will behave.

So scientists have begun investigating the trigger behind Greenland’s accelerating glaciers. Previous studies have found a correlation between faster-flowing glaciers and warmer ocean temperatures around Greenland. This observation, combined with glaciological studies, has led to the hypothesis that warmer waters may be increasing underwater melting (think ice cubes melting faster in a cup of hot water versus cold water) and triggering an acceleration of glaciers.

Yet, we know almost nothing about the water that makes direct contact with glaciers in Greenland’s remote, iceberg-laden fjords. They are hard to access and remain largely unexplored. All measurements of warming trends around Greenland have been made in the ocean off the coast, outside the fjords and far from the ocean-glacier interface.

Icebergs calving from Helheim Glacier drift into Sermilik Fjord, posing a danger to instruments deployed in the fjord. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

A few scientists have begun studying these fjords by making measurements during brief summer surveys. But just as recording the weather in Boston for a few days during the summer will not tell you much about Boston’s climate or temperature fluctuations, neither do snapshot surveys of fjords tell us much about temperature variability near vulnerable glaciers. So our research group designs moorings like SF1 to leave instruments in a fjord throughout the year, measuring ocean currents and water temperatures that drive melting at the glacier’s edge.

The research team returned to Sermilik Fjord in 2012 aboard the M/V Fox to recover their moorings, but the water in the upper fjord was too clogged with ice and they could not reach the site where they deployed the SF1 moorings. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

The return to Sermilik Fjord
Thirteen months after we deployed SF1, we headed back into Sermilik Fjord on a larger ship, the M/V Fox, to recover our moorings. At the same time, unknown to us, a particularly large iceberg moved over SF1. It held the mooring down for several hours and then continued its journey out of the fjord. But this time, the mooring did not spring back up.

The buoyant orange sphere atop the mooring line was designed to sit 1,000 feet below the surface and to withstand the immense pressure at this depth. However, when this iceberg pushed the sphere down to 1,500 feet below the surface, the metal sphere collapsed. It imploded, crumpled like a used paper cup, under the weight of a quarter mile of water. Having lost its buoyant sphere, the entire structure—instruments, wires, floats and all—plunged to the seafloor.

Meanwhile, aboard the M/V Fox, we had no inkling of the misfortune befalling SF1, but we were experiencing iceberg troubles of our own. The ice pack in the fjord was dense, and our large boat could not maneuver through the icebergs to reach the upper fjord. So we turned around, abandoning hope of recovering SF1 until the next year.
We did, however, recover a companion mooring, SF4, located farther down the fjord and away from the glacier. When I returned from fieldwork, I began analyzing the data collected by this mooring.

The records showed that fast currents shot up and down the fjord, reversing directions every few days throughout the winter. These velocity pulses were driven by winds and ocean currents outside the fjord. They constantly flooded the fjord with new water, causing large temperature changes. These findings were exciting, but their relevance to the glacier was not entirely clear. Since we could not recover SF1, I could not tell if these fast currents made it all the way to the upper fjord and directly changed water temperatures near the glacier, where SF1 lay.

A Mooring in Iceberg Alley. Fjords may link warming oceans and melting glaciers. -  Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©  

Grappling to recover SF1
Two years after SF1’s deployment and one year after its collapse, we headed back to Greenland for a second attempt at recovering the mooring. We made our way up the fjord in a smaller boat, sneaking through the ice, and arrived at the site of SF1 on Aug. 22, 2013. We transmitted acoustic pings to communicate with receivers on the mooring, telling it to release its anchor. But, with an imploded float and no buoyancy, the mooring did not come zipping up to the surface.

Luckily, mooring technician Will Ostrom had prepared for this. He had brought along a custom set of grappling hooks and a plethora of chains, weights, ropes, and wires. We were going to go fishing for our crumpled mooring. This endeavor is equivalent to retrieving a lost bracelet at the bottom of swimming pool with a string and hook in the dark.

We started by surveying the area with our acoustic pinger, which reported the range between our boat and the mooring and let us triangulate a more precise position of SF1 on the seafloor. This is no exact science, though. We lowered an anchor down at our best-guess location. Then we steamed away from the center of our target zone and spooled out chain, hooks, and weights.

Once these were lying on the seafloor, but still connected to the ship with a rope, we drove in a wide circle, sweeping the mess of gear along the seafloor in hopes of hooking a piece of the lost mooring. Then we pulled in the gear to check for a catch. We tried this several times until we had to quit for the day, tucking the ship into a small inlet off the fjord to sleep away from icebergs.

Early the next morning, we tried again, with more weights and hooks this time. We swept an even larger circle, all the while dodging and circumnavigating icebergs. As we were about to give up, the wire tightened, heeling the boat to its starboard side. We had caught something. We hauled in, and SF1 surfaced, piece by piece, tangled up in our dragging gear. Last onto the ship’s deck was the rusty, imploded, orange sphere.

The story SF1 told us
The instruments on SF1 survived all the trauma. The pressure sensor, along with a fortuitously placed GPS unit, allowed us to reconstruct the details of SF1’s story. In 2012, we had used a helicopter to place GPS units on five icebergs to track their paths and see how long icebergs stay in the fjord. By coincidence, it was one of these icebergs that hit and sank SF1.

SF1’s instruments gave us records of temperature, salinity, pressure, and velocity that were longer and closer to a major glacier than any previous scientific studies in Greenland. We found that the fast pulses of water recorded by our other mooring, SF4, do make it to the upper fjord near the glacier and drive large temperature fluctuations there. Changes in water temperature outside the fjord on the continental shelf get rapidly transmitted toward the glacier. If we want to effectively model and predict how glaciers melt at their submarine terminuses, we must take these pulses into account.

This scientific finding from SF1 contributes just one piece in a complex puzzle of ocean-glacier interaction, which itself is only one component needed to predict sea level rise in the future. To get more answers, we need to continue putting moorings in the line of iceberg fire, inching our way toward the glacier with better and more innovative designs to measure what happens where glaciers meet the ocean.

This research was funded by the National Science Foundation’s Division of Ocean Sciences and Division of Polar Programs and by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution’s Ocean Climate Change Institute, with logistical support from Greenpeace International.


by Rebecca Jackson


  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.sail-world.com/index.cfm?nid=124926

8:45 AM Sun 27 Jul 2014GMT


Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.







Sail-World Cruising News - local and the World

Michael Thurston, the owner of the Australian yacht Drina, sent us a message from Nome, Alaska, to inform us that he and his crew had reached the Pacific Ocean thus successfully completing a transit of the Northwest Passage. A late opening of the Bellot Strait allowed Drina to reach the central part of the Northwest Passage only by mid-September. ... [more]  

The World ARC fleet departed the Cocos (Keeling) Islands this morning, embarking on the second longest sail of their circumnavigation; a 2350 nautical miles journey to Mauritius. Their stay in the tropical atoll has certainly been one to remember. ... [more]  

Pantaenius, the world’s leading specialist yacht insurance company, has been at the forefront of yacht insurance for more than 40 years, earning a reputation for transparency and commitment to customer service that provides round-the-clock international support and reliable, speedy claims settlement. ... [more]  

World-wide the development of marine wind farms will grow. Britain's RYA is taking a proactive stance that can serve as an example for other yachting bodies. If wind farms could be an issue in your waters, its important to follow just what is happening in GBR. Speaking today Stuart Carruthers, RYA Cruising Manager said 'The RYA will now be responding to those of the Panel’s questions that have bee ... [more]  

How to make a distance scale for faster navigation by Captain John Jamieson, Florida
If you are anything like me, sailing navigation can be a challenge when short- or single-handed sailing. But you still need to be able to plot fast and accurate positions for sailing safety. Here one little-known sailing tip used by the pros that will help you do just that! ... [more]  

The 14th edition of the Atlas also includes a new double page map of the Arctic Ocean, which highlights the dramatic long-term decline of Arctic sea ice cover. The sub-ice maps draw on bedrock data, provided by the British Antarctic Survey, to show physical features which are obscured by ice cover. ... [more]  

Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) volunteer crews from Flamborough and Bridlington launched the afternoon of Tuesday, 16 September, after a helicopter crashed close to Flamborough Head. Flamborough RNLI’s Atlantic 85 inshore lifeboat launched at 1.45pm, followed soon after by Bridlington RNLI all-weather lifeboat. ... [more]  

On Monday 22 September the EU Naval Force flagship, ITS Andrea Doria, met the Chinese Navy ship, CNS Changbaishan, in the Gulf of Aden. ... [more]  

The Presque Isle peninsula is a 3,200-acre – 7-mile long arm that extends northeast into Lake Erie creating a large, sheltered boating paradise of a harbour. With a string of well equipped marinas, a wealth of facilities and a very impressive yacht club, it has attractions for boaters that place it at the top of a cruising destination list. ... [more]  

Iridium have recently released the Iridium GO!, their latest product in the satellite communication market. It’s portable, battery powered, and creates a WiFi hotspot. www.predictwind.com!PredictWind!new have partnered with Iridium to put together a package catering specifically to the marine market. ... [more]  

In the early morning of Friday 19 September, EU Naval Force frigate, ESPS Navarra, came to the aid of a stricken yacht in the Gulf of Aden. The yacht had been detected on the warship’s radar in the early morning. ESPS Navarra’s Bridge team initially tried to hail the yacht via their VHF radio. ... [more]  

As their annual migration south approaches, sail and powerboat cruisers are stocking their boat’s lockers, checking systems and taking inventory of spare parts. But that’s not the only preparation these cruising 'snowbirds' will need to do, says Boat Owners Association of The United States (BoatUS). ... [more]  

Lost your rudder at sea? Michael Keyworth perfected a way to steer using drogues. To engineer this solution, he removed the rudder from his own boat(!), and experimented with different method, and has summarized his technique in this terrific article. ... [more]  

You scratched my seagrass! by Steven Katona, Newport, RI
Sailors for the Sea publishes monthly articles that translate the language of marine science into fascinating articles about ocean health. ... [more]  

Following a relatively short stopover in Christmas Island, eleven of the World ARC fleet have now arrived in their next paradise, the Cocos (Keeling) Islands. From first settlement in 1826 by English merchant Alexander Hare, through decades of administration by the Clunies-Ross dynasty, most island inhabitants had little freedom or contact with the outside world. ... [more]  

Paul Whitehouse and Simone Wood, from Wolverhampton and London, were in La Paz in Baja California when Hurricane Odile hit the Baja California peninsula last Sunday. It is thought their yacht overturned, and the couple have not been seen since. The couple is thought to have been living in La Paz for around a year. Mr Whitehouse is believed to be a scuba diving instructor in the city. ... [more]  

This might be the Texting and Facebook generation but boaters need to use VHF radio says volunteer rescuers from Weston-super-Mare's lifeboat station who rescued a yachtsman whose boat sank in the middle of the Bristol Channel and who then texted his girlfriend. ... [more]  

Earlier this year two men died in their bunks of carbon monoxide poisoning caused by the highly toxic fumes given off from a poorly maintained butane gas cooker. The cooker which was located in the wheelhouse had been lit to heat the wheelhouse and sleeping area. A carbon monoxide alarm was not fitted. ... [more]  

The Arctic is an ocean surrounded by land and Arctic sea ice is the thin layer of frozen ocean water that forms and grows during the winter, and melts in the summer. Dr Jeremy Wilkinson from the British Antarctic Survey provides a scientist’s perspective on the trend for decreasing Arctic sea ice. ... [more]  

The Virgin Islands are an archipelago. That part, which is a British overseas territory, is commonly referred to as the BVI. About 30,000 people live in the BVI, most of which live on the island of Tortola. The BVI are comprised of about 50 islands the majority of which are not inhabited by humans. ... [more]  

Visitors to this year’s his year's Genoa International Boat Show will find the event 'renewed and more dynamic', adapting to the needs of an industry that is just beginning to see Spring at the end of a long hard Winter. Exhibitor numbers are up on last year, with sailing boats and small-to-medium sized motor boats leading the charge. The show will have a new layout ... [more]  

The Galley Guys take on the Vancouver International Boat Show by Greg Nicoll with Frank Leffelaar and Friends
The Galley Guys hit the Vancouver International Boat Show running. All day long, we were checking out new boats, looking into ice lockers, peeking into storage compartments, seeing what’s new for gourmet cooking onboard and being forced to live on 'show food' by day. ... [more]  

Are you ready to enter that marina? by Captain John Jamieson, Florida
Are you ready to enter that narrow canal or passage ahead that leads into the marina? Have you prepared your boat and crew for the unexpected? No matter if it's a brand new marina or the one you use as 'home base', docking preps will be the same each and every time. ... [more]  

Each summer, in a Canadian cruising tradition, thousands of Western Lake Ontario sailors join the annual summer migration to the Bay of Quinte and the Thousand Islands. ... [more]  

The RYA is working to improve its understanding of the number and spread of leisure boaters either using or not using AIS on board their vessels, in order to quality assure our data as we update the RYA’s Coastal Atlas of Recreational Boating. ... [more]  

Unlike an automobile, recreational boats have special safety needs when it comes to refueling. Stern drive or inboard powered boats have closed engine compartments where volatile gasoline vapors don’t easily dissipate, and older gasoline powered boats are the riskiest to refuel as their brittle fuel hoses can crack, leaving gas in the bilge after a fill-up. ... [more]  

For the next 72 hours the majority of the World ARC fleet will be moored in Flying Fish Cove on Christmas Island. The crews will have been planning their 48 hours stopover here before leaving Bali so they can make the most of it. Christmas Island is one of the jewels of the Indian Ocean and has a lot to offer. 63% of its land mass is made of National Park which is home to many endemic species. ... [more]  

Three-time President of French Polynesia, Gaston Tong Sang, and current mayor of Bora Bora, has written a strong letter of support for the Blue Planet Odyssey, assuring the fleet a warm Polynesian welcome when they arrive there in 2015. ... [more]  

Do you want to win a trip of a life time to any port of call along the Round the World Race in 2015? Great, because it is simple! All you have to do is design, scribble, write or draw a T-Shirt design and submit it online at www.ecsix.com/contest. 'You don’t have to be a designer to win, we are after the best creative idea that fits our brand' says ECsix’s Scott Vogel. ... [more]  

Remember to properly dispose of obsolete distress beacons by Australian Maritime Safety Authority
You might not be 'down under but here is a cautionary tale!- The Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) is urging people to ensure they dispose of their obsolete and unwanted distress beacons correctly after emergency services spent more than six hours homing a beacon eventually found dumped in bushland on Queensland's Sunshine Coast over the weekend of 6-7 September. ... [more]  

Blue Planet Odyssey - We made landfall the morning of Saturday, September 13th at 0900 local time as we passed Race Point at the entrance into Cape Cod Bay. Since leaving St John’s less than one week ago we had covered 1109 miles, at an average of just under seven knots. ... [more]  

The World ARC fleet made a great sight on September 14th as they sailed across the start line at the entrance to Benoa Harbour, Bali. Before leaving Bali International Marina, Arsa, a tour guide who had looked after the fleet during their week-long stay, visited yachts to perform a traditional Hindu blessing. It was a beautiful way to send off the fleet and a very special moment for many. ... [more]  

An international team of scientists, including the British Antarctic Survey, studied the geologic history of the area of the Antarctic Peninsula where the Larsen B ice shelf disintegrated, the portion of Antarctica that extends northwards toward South America. The new findings support the idea that such a dramatic collapse can be caused by surface warming. ... [more]  

Baltic 4 Nations - Next edition sets sail July 2015
BoatUS offers 'Boater's Guide To Winterizing'
Yachts prepare for second Atlantic Odyssey, departing this November
Thai drama with Phuket yacht clampdown
Marine Rescue volunteers in two searches on NSW northern waters
Sailing Rallies launch two new events at PSP Southampton Boat Show
World ARC crews in Bali
Could your sailing navigation use a tune-up?
Images of marine sunsets by Tripadvisor
Citizen science model proposed to fill fundamental ocean data gap
Africa-Europe Challenge - Three short harbor races to be organized
European Odyssey - Sardinhada in Lisbon for the fleet
Ocean Cruising Club celebrates 60th Anniversary with record gatherings
The Boat Cookbook
La Grace - Flagship of Africa-Europe Challenge in 2014
Indian Ocean-wide tsunami exercise to test readiness
Blue Planet Odyssey - Aventura makes landfall at St John’s
18 anti-piracy weapons for ships to fight pirates
World ARC fleet now arriving in Bali
Governor’s Cup Yacht race - Great for cruisers and racers alike
Cowes Breakwater causes new tidal flow   
EU Naval flagship- frigate assist yacht twice maydays in pirate zone   
An offer a Galley Guy cannot refuse   
Dinghy Safety - More to think about   
World ARC fleet to enter Indian Ocean for the first time   
What can you do to prevent electrocution and ESD?   
Pack this sailing gear for 'hands-free' lighting   
Salty Dawg Rally Seminar Series planned October 8 in Annapolis   
Europe tightens up on skippers competency certification   
World ARC fleet departs Darwin under full sail   
NOAA expedition discovers ship’s timepiece silent for nearly 200 years   
Blue Planet Odyssey - Northwest Passage gate opens   
A Cruising Guide to the Dominican Republic 6.0 now available   
BNS Leopold I to commence counter-piracy operations   
Africa Europe Challenge introduces 'Spectator's Package'   
Wanted youth circumnavigators on a 'Voyage of Imagination'   
Niagara-on-the-Lake, a popular cruising destination in Canada   
The crowd-pleasing comforts of catamaran cruising   
Death by Dinghy   
'Sailing Stones' of Death Valley seen in action for the first time   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/FaceBook-icon.png  http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph, contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW CRU NH
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT